Evolution Perspective in Product Development

Product Development代写 The world population is rising at an exponential rate. It has increased pressure on natural resources and food (Boserup, 2017, p. 10).


The world population is rising at an exponential rate.

It has increased pressure on natural resources and food (Boserup, 2017, p. 10). As a result, scientists are devising mechanisms to increase food production for the population. Agribusiness has been the new development and innovation, aiming to increase food production. Horticulture is one of the emerging fields in agribusiness where many agriculturalists have falsely reproduced harvests to choose for more attractive characteristics like tastes, color, and size (Denham, Iriarte, and Vrydaghs, 2016, p. 45).

It is evident that foods change over a long period of reproduction. In this regard, instead of relying on reproduction, modern science has come up with evolutional approaches to manipulate fruits to achieve desirable morphological variations to improve their edibility and commercialization.

Additionally, the earth is a continuous flux. Everything on it is changing every lapse in time.  Product Development代写

The changes can either be fast or slow, but it is a natural part of living organisms. It is true that the foods we eat today have little or no resemblance to their forebears. The changes in living organisms are attributed to evolution and their interactions in the ecosystem as well as changes in agricultural technologies and techniques like genetically modified organisms and hybridization. In this context, Prago is not a new product in the wild, but it is yet to be domesticated.

It is true that the fruits have been undergoing evolutionally changes over the centuries. Possibly, Prago has not been noticeable many years back because of its small size, lack of bright colors, slow dispersion. As such, it has undergone changes larger size, brighter colors, and faster dispersion and hence, distribution. These may explain the reason for recent discovery, or instead, it became noticeable by scientists.

Therefore, this research will explore the evolutionally perspective of Prago.  Product Development代写

An increase in food demands necessitate the research, and hence, the need to develop a good understanding of the potential of the Prago. In so doing, various questions will be addressed, including phylogenetic of Prago, change of its size, and environmental needs of the fruit at the current time and after modification. Also will be addressed is the mode of interaction the fruit has with other species such as pests, and pollinators and how its evolutional changes affect its viability in the future. The paper will compare the colors of the fruit and explain how to determine whether they represent different species of something else. The solution to these problems will help determine the commercial viability of Prago.

Phylogenetic Relationships  Product Development代写

According to physical and internal features of Prago, it belongs to the Rosaceae family and the Maloideae subfamily. The fruit is likely to do well in equatorial climate in Asia. Prago seem related to pears and come from the same class. Pears belong to the genus Pyrus that is characterized by several species. Pears was domesticated more than 3000 years ago and is considered one of the oldest fruit in the world (Wu et al., 2013, 2014). Prago is found in the equator of Asia hence has a similar distribution of pears which was originally domesticated in China and other areas of Asia and the Middle East as well as central Asia. Both fruits have an identical shape, fresh pulp, and seeds inside, as shown below.

Product Development代写
Product Development代写

(Source: https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/285430.php)

As such, Maloideae subfamily has x=7 or x=9basic chromosomes.  Product Development代写

The number of chromosomes suggests that the fruit originates from polyploidization event. Prago may be as a result of hybridization between primitive forms of Rosaceae. Therefore, the fruit is likely to be diploid (2n = 2x = 34). It might be true because pears that is cultivated in Europe are derived from wild pears, namely P. pyraster and P. caucasica. The phylogenetic relationship Prago and pears can be domesticated using a similar approach as that of pears. Related scientific studies with Prago can be carried out with fruits from Rosaceae family, Maloideae subfamily and genus Pyrus.

How to Increase the Size Prago by 40 Percent  Product Development代写

The size of Prago is required to be increased by 40 percent to make it commercially viable. Increase in size is a morphological aspect which can be altered using scientific techniques. When the ancient Americans first engineered the genome of the tomato thousand years ago, they used a specific strain from a wild plant that produced bigger fruits. Recently, scientists have come up with ways to make gene editing that enabled the production of bigger fruits. Genome editing enabled larger flowers. Therefore, to increase the size of Prago, a scientist needs to use genetic control of size and shape, regulate the cell division activity and patterns, or carry out cell expansion regulation.

In this context, the fruit is a terminal structure that is determined by the final shape and weight that are rooted in the plant’s lifespan.

A case of tomato size enlargement can be analyzed and relate it to Prago plant. The fruit formation in Solanum pimpinellifolium starts at the formation of inflorescence and floral meristem (van der Knaap et al. 2014, p. 227). From meristem to anthesis-stage depends on the type of plant. Thus, the morphology of fruit is determined by the combination of meristem organization, cell division, shape, and expansion (Xu et al., 2015, p. 784). If the meristem organization results in the larger meristem, it leads to the formation of bulkers fruits.

Thus, an induced mutation in genes in WUS-CLV3 enlarges the meristem, which consequently yields larger fruits.  Product Development代写

Cell division, shape, and expansion in meristem can be controlled at the ontogeny of the ovary and fruits. These cellular processes take place before or after enthesis in Solanum pimpinellifolium. The proliferation of cell division at after pollination and fertilization can mutate to increase cell enlargement before maturation. Through artificial mutation, a scientist can increase the cell layers in the pericarp of Prago by changing the rate of cell division and the duration of ovary development.

Product Development代写
Product Development代写

Therefore, manipulation of CNR/FW2.2 can change the width of cell layers in the ovary wall, which increase the size of the fruit. Also, SlKLUH/FW3.2 can be manipulated to increase the cell layers in the pericarp (Chakrabarti et al. 2013, p. 17125). Besides, SlKLUH can be mutated to delay the maturation and ripening of the fruit and hence increase the cell division. In tomato, the natural mutation of this fruit weighs genes result in more than 1.5 mm increase in ovary size results to more than 8 cm wide fruit. The change is predominantly due to cell enlargement in the pericarp before cell proliferation. The same principle of gene mutation in tomato can apply in Prago for larger size through cell enlargement and hence larger fruit.

Moreover  Product Development代写

Research shows that plant growth regulators can be controlled to modify the size of fruits (Canli and Pektas, 2015, p. 103). They identified benzyl adenine (BA) and benzyladenine associated with gibberellins A4-A7 (BA+GA) which regulate the size and quality of pears. Since pears and Prago are related most likely, the same approach can be used. They observed that, after 14 days, pears trees were treated with BA and BA+GA, and the resultant fruit size and quality increased.

The high and intermediate concentration of BA+GA and BA respectively increased the fruit size in terms of weight, diameter, and length. Those pear plants treated with 25 and 50 ppm of BA+GA respectively recorded 20.2 percent higher yields in weight and length. Hence, the treatment of Prago with BA+GA hormones can significantly increase its weight and length by more than 20 percent.

Additionally  Product Development代写

Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urban-Champaign found that a genetic tweak in crops can increase the growth by 40 percent (South, Cavanagh, Liu, and Ort, 2019; Duan et al, 2017, p. 250). In a project called Realizing Increased Photosynthesis Efficiency (RIPE), they realized that yield could be increased by manipulating the process of photosynthesis. It was done by rerouting chemical reactions in crops. The research was based on the fact that photorespiration costs a lot of energy. During the various processes, Rubisco makes a mistake during the conversion of CO2 sugar and energy.

It occurs that when such errors occur, the enzyme captures oxygen molecules which it uses to make glycolate and ammonia which are toxic to plants. The process by the plants to recycle these toxins results in the consumption of much energy that reduces efficiency in food production. In so doing, they used three alternative photo respiratory pathway (AP) to express genes in single constructs. They found that AP plants are resistant to photorespiration stress, increase in biomass, and increased photosynthesis rate. A similar approach can be used in Prago plant to increase the storage of food in fruits and hence increase in the weight and length of fruits.

Environment Needs of Prago  Product Development代写

The fruit thrives in the equatorial region of Asia that lies between 10°N and 10°S in Indonesia and Malaysia. Therefore, the environmental need of the plant consists of high rainfall and small ranges in temperature. Also, the plant thrives well as winds in the area have seasonal shifts which provide dry season period.

However, the plant may not survive in other climatic conditions.

There is a need for a scientific strategy to produce resilient climate crops. One of the approaches is to have genetic-assisted breeding. It involves the use of DNA marker for marker-aided selection (MAS) in crossbreeding (Muthamilarasan, Theriappan, and Prasad, 2013, p. 155). The method involves identifying the plant stressor due to climatic changes. The plant should be tested in multiple environments to model the stress impact on it.

By the help of plant breeders and genebank curators, it will be possible to evaluate the morphological and physiological features in the germplasm that can help the plant in adaption. Therefore, the researcher can identify the ideotypes from the plant physiology to pursue the adaptation criteria. Also, DNA fingerprinting and mapping of genes will help determine the plant genes help in evaluating the specific stress in the plant (Lendenmann et al., 2016, p. 386). Similarly, the use of phenotypes and biometric analysis can be used to determine the response a plant has to various climatic conditions. The results are then applied in genome-aided breeding of Prago plant.

Mode of Interaction with Other Species  Product Development代写

The fact that the Prago plant has only thrived in Asia around equator proves that it is adapted to the ecosystem’s modes of interaction (Yang et al. 2014, p. 1072). That means it has resistance to various pest and diseases. It has also adapted to the method of dispersion. However, any evolutional modification to morphological features will affect its resistance to pests and diseases and how it is dispersed. As such, alterations to the fruits have to maintain some of its natural characteristics such as color and reinforce their resistance to diseases and pests.

Fruits Colors  Product Development代写

The color of the Prago fruits does not mean they are different species. Trait variations in pigment formation cause the differences in fruit colors. Genetic pigmentation variation can be explained using Drosophila Americana (Massey and Wittkopp, 2016, p. 30). The differences in morphology and physiology of the fruit can be as a result of phenotype evolution in genetic and molecular patterns during the evolution process (Martin and Orgogozo, 2013, p. 1240). Red and purple color in Prago does not render the fruit different but a show of trait variations caused by evolution. The figure below shows fruits with different colors but of the same species.


(source: https://gizmodo.com/how-the-fruits-got-their-colors-1607322829)


Boserup, E., 2017. The conditions of agricultural growth: The economics of agrarian change under population pressure (pp. 1-137). Routledge.

Chakrabarti, M., Zhang, N.A., Sauvage, C., Muños, S., Blanca, J., Cañizares, J., Diez, M.J., Schneider, R., Mazourek, M., McClead, J. and Causse, M., 2013. A cytochrome P450 regulates a domestication trait in cultivated tomato. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(42), pp.17125-17130.

Canli, F.A., and Pektas, M., 2015. Improving fruit size and quality of low yielding and small-fruited pear cultivars with benzyladenine and gibberellin applications. Eur. J. Hortic. Sci, 80(3), pp.103-108.

Duan, N., Bai, Y., Sun, H., Wang, N., Ma, Y., Li, M., Wang, X., Jiao, C., Legall, N., Mao, L. and Wan, S., 2017. Genome re-sequencing reveals the history of apple and supports a two-stage model for fruit enlargement. Nature communications, 8(1), p.249.

Denham, T.P., Iriarte, J. and Vrydaghs, L., 2016. Selection, cultivation and reproductive isolation: a reconsideration of the morphological and molecular signals of domestication. In Rethinking agriculture (pp. 44-57). Routledge.

Lendenmann, M.H., Croll, D., Palma-Guerrero, J., Stewart, E.L. and McDonald, B.A., 2016. QTL mapping of temperature sensitivity reveals candidate genes for thermal adaptation and growth morphology in the plant pathogenic fungus Zymoseptoria tritici. Heredity, 116(4), p.384.


Product Development代写
Product Development代写

Massey, J.H., and Wittkopp, P.J., 2016. The genetic basis of pigmentation differences within and between Drosophila species. Current topics in developmental biology (Vol. 119, pp. 27-61). Academic Press.

Martin, A., and Orgogozo, V., 2013. The loci of repeated evolution: a catalog of genetic hotspots of phenotypic variation. Evolution, 67(5), pp.1235-1250.

Muthamilarasan, M., Theriappan, P., and Prasad, M., 2013. Recent advances in crop genomics for ensuring food security. Curr Sci, 105, pp.155-158.

South, P.F., Cavanagh, A.P., Liu, H.W. and Ort, D.R., 2019. Synthetic glycolate metabolism pathways stimulate crop growth and productivity in the field. Science, 363(6422), pp. 9077.

Van der Knaap, E., Chakrabarti, M., Chu, Y.H., Clevenger, J.P., Illa-Berenguer, E., Huang, Z., Keyhaninejad, N., Mu, Q., Sun, L., Wang, Y. and Wu, S., 2014. What lies beyond the eye: the molecular mechanisms regulating tomato fruit weight and shape? Frontiers in plant science, 5, p.227.

Xu, C., Liberatore, K.L., MacAlister, C.A., Huang, Z., Chu, Y.H., Jiang, K., Brooks, C., Ogawa-Ohnishi, M., Xiong, G., Pauly, M., and Van Eck, J., 2015. A cascade of arabinosyltransferases controls shoot meristem size in tomato. Nature Genetics, 47(7), p.784.

Yang, G., Liu, N., Lu, W., Wang, S., Kan, H., Zhang, Y., Xu, L., and Chen, Y., 2014. The interaction between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and soil phosphorus availability influences plant community productivity and ecosystem stability. Journal of Ecology, 102(4), pp.1072-1082.


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