Report on Work Design Pilot to Support Innovative Behavior at CERA

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Table of Content

人力资源管理代写 Human resource management is part of the core business strategies and needs as much attention as any other department in ···

 

Contents

Introduction  —————————– 3

CERA Human Resource Planning  —————————– 3

Work Design  —————————–  6

Work design at draft office —————————– 7

Conclusion  —————————– 10

Recommendations  —————————– 11

References  —————————–  12

Introduction  人力资源管理代写

Human resource management is part of the core business strategies and needs as much attention as any other department in the organization. These involve many activities ranging from human resources planning to human resource design but we will be limited to the two. For any organization to strategically grow the market size and create competitiveness there are internal changes takes place to realign its human resource.

CERA needs to redefine its human resource after years of operation and after a realization that there are missing links to building more innovative workforce due to poor human resource planning and work design. The human resource management is a platform on which workers needs are addressed in a diversified business like CERA. Expansion and diversification pose a challenge to Israel Tobin who is the human resource manager.

Nonetheless, their human resource management approaches that are generally applicable to the departments in CERA. For illustration, in the department of human resource management, the human resource manager focuses on an effective way to respond to the employees’ shortage and how to bring the balance between the supply and demand for the skilled workforce (Shih, 2015). CERA’s approaches to work analysis and design will vary because of the company have different jobs in the different businesses.

CERA Human Resource Planning  人力资源管理代写

In the case of CERA, we can define HR Planning as a way of translating organizational goals into human resource objectives of skilled labor, number of workers and allocation. Deriving from the organizational objectives, we develop integrated organizational policies.

Human resource planning involves a logical sequence of events as established by Kramer et al. (2014, p. 211)

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Israel Tobin and his team started the process of human resource planning by gathering required market information on the likely demand from the bigger part of Sydney and after expansion to NSW, also the demand that will arise after expansion of their market to other parts in Sydney.

Then they tried to use these markets demand to translate it into staffing.  人力资源管理代写

The strategic choice they tried to make was to forecast labor demand and labor supply and determine the nature of and size of the gap. They used statistical and judgmental methods to forecast market demand into labor demand and labor supply. After identifying the gap then the team continued to goal setting and planning. There are various options to close the demand/supply gap, depending on whether there is a forecast surplus or shortage of staff (Kramer et al).

Demand forecasting was made for particular workers sets and areas that required specific competencies for the company’s present and five years period. The most useful leading indicators for forecasting staffing needs are government expenditure on infrastructure development and the policies and plans for developing commerce and residents.

They found that determining the supply of labor is more straightforward than determining labor demand for the company.

CERA looked at current staffing in its various jobs and skill categories and then had to adjust these figures based on anticipated terminations of jobs, promotions of workers, transfers to other areas, voluntary turnover and retirements. A transitional matrix (also called Markov analysis) is a tool of analysis used by organizations to study workers and how they transition in different job categories in and out of the organization. Israel Tobin applied Markov analysis in his meeting with the Civil Engineering and Planning Divisions. The team drew a summary of labor demand and labor supply data into two spreadsheets as shown below.

人力资源管理代写
人力资源管理代写

By analyzing the data above, it was clear that in the next five years CERA will be faced with a labor shortage. The analysis covered a period of five years forecast of the likely labor demand. The company was expected to employ more workers to meet the market demand and also for the purpose of its prospective growth strategy to the new market. To avoid labor shortage, the goal plan is formulated as with options classified by speed and revocability.

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Source: (Kramar et al., 2014, p. 216)

It is important to make note that when making human resource goals and a specific plan from the findings above, you have to consider the strategic choice of the organization and organizational culture.

After deciding on the course of action, CERA needs to implement the program and do the evaluation. Implementation undertakes particular actions which are designed to affect objective set by the planning team. The process inherent steps are observed to put the goals in the right direction and ensure that the intentioned object of those goals is well aligned with the plan devised.  The whole program calls for accountability, authority, and resources available to accomplish the stated goals.

Evaluation of the plan often occurs regularly whereby it can be carried out at particular intervals or continuous.

It is a critical component of important company programs which are put in place to see that the goals of the plan are achieved. For the purpose of effectiveness before actual implementation certain measures are put in place. The measures may include statistical goals and time schedules, surveys of the workers affected by the program, any other method which will be effective in measuring the results of the implementation program. The overall objectives of the program implemented are then compared with the outcome of the whole program to see whether they helped in solving the human resource problems. Out of the results, the experience got from the evaluation, are used to modify the strategies previously applied for long-term planning. After HR planning CERA will be able to focus on analysis and work design. The other important part is work design a responsibility give to Rachel Amaro.

Work Design  人力资源管理代写

CERA needed to do the analysis and work design (Arnold and Randall, 2016). The work analysis and design are one of the critical parts to creating and enhancing innovativeness in the jobs. To implement HR planning strategy is virtually difficult without doing full work-flow analysis, job analysis, and job design (Lawrence, 2010). A manager needs the appreciation of their unit workflow process for maximum productivity and success.

For her to understand this process, she must also have details of the information about the jobs that exist in her job unit through job analysis. When she has a better understanding of workflow process she can restructure works for assurance that the unit can achieve its set objectives and also the workers in that unit become motivated, satisfied, safe, healthy and achieve. This is crucial for creativity and innovation in CERA.

The CERA business strategy affects how works are designed and work together. 

人力资源管理代写
人力资源管理代写

The company is different from other companies that compete on the basis of cost. CERA compete on the basis of service/product differentiation and innovation (Kistner, 2010). For instance, in the public sector and non-profit organizations, the way services are provided to customers depends much on how the jobs are designed. Work design, therefore, is dependent on the setting within which the organization does its activities and the strategic choices it makes about how it will position itself in its environment.

Job design defines the scope of work, how the job will be performed and every task that pertains to the job (Kramar et al. 2014, p. 192). It involves the change of tasks or the how the job is performed in the already existing job. This is the area of interest in CERA. This is the work that Rachel is required to accomplish.

On the other hand, job analysis has several contributions to HR practices. It is the process of gathering information about the job of interest (Morgeson and Humphrey, 2006). To do a job analysis, it involves workflow analysis, questionnaires, interviews, surveys and observations in gathering all the information about the job. Job analysis is important in work restructuring, employee learning and development, HR planning, selection, career planning, performance management and job evaluation

Work design at draft office  人力资源管理代写

There are four approaches to any work design:

The motivational approach – the approach establishes that work design is guided by work autonomy, goal clarity, extrinsic job feedback, Social interaction, Task variety, Task identity, skill-level requirements, skill variety, intrinsic job feedback, Task significance, learning

The mechanistic approach – focus on work specialization, task simplification, specializations of tools and procedures, single activities, job simplification, repetition, over time and job automation

The biological approach – uses strength, lifting, shift work, endurance, physical differences, wrist movement, noise, climate and work breaks to explain work design.

The perceptual-motor approach – the approach focus on lighting, information-processing requirements, programs, workplace layout, displays, information-input requirements, information-output requirements, memory requirements, printed job materials, stress and boredom in explaining the work design.

The choice of the approach to be applied depends on the organization’s strategy and culture. The most appropriate depends on the outcomes she wants to achieve.

In CERA case, the outcome is to enhance innovation of workers in Drafting Office.

人力资源管理代写
人力资源管理代写

(Source: https://image.slidesharecdn.com/module3analysisanddesignofwork-130722103715-phpapp02/95/module3-analysis-and-design-of-work-30-638.jpg?cb=1374489541)

In the Drafting Department, Rachel is required to do a pilot work design to foster creativity and innovation in CERA. The approach to use will solely dependent on this objective (Ceylan, 2013). Ceylan is examining the innovation performance of organizations, notably, so-called commitment-based HR practices.

HRM Innovations selectively identifies the best talent for the job (Jain, Mathew & Bedi’s 2012). They established the connection between HR innovation with company performance and organizational culture.

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Source: https://image.slidesharecdn.com/jobdesign-120909064612-phpapp01/95/job-design-4-728.jpg?cb=1347173254)

The most appropriate approach work designs for Drafting Office in CERA are mechanistic, perceptual-motor and motivational.

Perpetual- motor work design approach – focus on the employee psychological abilities and limits. The approach main goal is to design jobs in a way that ensures they do not exceed people psychological abilities and limits. This approach commonly attempts to expand dependability, safety and user responses by designing jobs to reduce information-processing requirement. This approach is suitable to CERA. Engineering works involve a lot of mental work, therefore designing a job this job using perpetual-motor approach will be one of the best choices in fostering innovation and creativity.

Motivational work design – she will focus on the job features that affect both mental and motivation of the employee.  人力资源管理代写

Attitude differences such as intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, satisfaction and work participation, and behavioral variables such as performance and attendance are the most important product of the work design. To increase meaningfulness of jobs, job design emphasizes on the motivational approach.

Mechanistic approach – mostly aims at reducing the complexity of the job so that to increase employee efficiency, by simplifying the jobs to the extent anyone assigned to do that job can do it with little training. These approach emphases on creating a design that carries out the concept of job specialization, skills simplification, and repetition.

These approaches are applicable in drafting office where the pilot work design needs to be carried out. The approaches will improve the creativity and innovation in the drafting area. To achieve these, the approaches create efficiency, motivation, specialization, and the learning process.

Conclusion  人力资源管理代写

Human resource planning is the heart of human resource management for the organization to be competitive in the market. Planning for HR is as important as other functions of the management. HR planning helps the company to be futuristic in terms of labor forces and market responsiveness.

From this report it is clear for CERA to achieve job efficiency and effectiveness in the next five years. It needs to realign it human resource planning goals and work design to the organizational strategic goals and culture. It is clear that it will experience the labor shortage in its five years strategic plan. To achieve expansion and growth in Australia the company needed to carry out human resource planning and job analysis and design.

HR planning and work design are two inseparable areas of human resource management. To carry out work design, one must plan the work and strategize HR planning goals. Planning lay a foundation on which work design is based. There, the report started by examining the CERA HR requirements to establish the workforce required before carrying out work design.

Recommendations  人力资源管理代写

Rachel Amaro needs to shift her paradigm thinking and see the light of the modern human resource planning needs and benefits it accrue to the whole organization. As well outlined by this report it will become clear on how to carry out work design in the Drafting department. This report recommends carrying out analysis and work design so that it’s growing and expansion prospects will be achieved. In so doing workers will be motivated, there will be specialization, fewer resources will be used, there will be improved efficiency, and eventually, an environment that fosters creativity and innovation.

This report seeks to advise Rachel Amaro on how to design jobs in her Draft Management Office to support innovative behavior. On her part, she did not saw the need for additional work on HR management. She saw this as added word workload whereas they have been doing well without human resource management. For her to do this work design, she need an integrated us of HR planning and work design, both are used together to achieve a common objective. So in this report we will establish the human resource planning and work design of CERA.

References  人力资源管理代写

Arnold, J. and Randall, R. (2016). Work psychology. 6th ed. New York: Pearson Education.

Shih, K. (2015). Labor market openness, h-1b visa policy, and the scale of international student enrollment in the united states. Econ Inq, 54(1), pp.121-138.

Ceylan, C. (2013). Commitment-based HR practices, different types of innovation activities and firm innovation performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(1), 208-226. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2012.680601

Jain, H., Mathew, M., & Bedi, A. (2012). HRM innovations by Indian and foreign MNCs operating in India: a survey of HR professionals. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(5), 1006-1018.
doi: 10.1080/09585192.2012.651332

Lawrence, P. (2010). The key job design problem is still Taylorism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2-3), pp.412-421.

Kistner, L. (2010). Determining and executing new product strategy: Integrating the product innovation charter and the fuzzy front-end. Doctor of Philosophy. Capella University.

Morgeson, F. and Humphrey, S. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), pp.1321-1339.

 


支持CERA创新行为的工作设计试点报告

学生姓名

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表中的内容

人力资源管理代写人力资源管理是核心业务战略的一部分,与···

内容

简介—————————– 3

CERA人力资源规划——————————- 3

工作设计——————————————— 6

草案办公室的工作设计——————————- 7

结论—————————– 10

建议—————11

参考文献——————————————— 12

简介 人力资源管理代写

人力资源管理是核心业务战略的一部分,与组织中的其他任何部门一样,需要给予足够的重视。这些涉及从人力资源规划到人力资源设计的许多活动,但我们将仅限于这两项。对于任何要从战略上扩大市场规模并创造竞争力的组织,都发生了内部变化,以重新调整其人力资源。

经过多年的运营,并且意识到由于人力资源规划和工作设计不佳,建立更多创新型员工队伍缺少联系,CERA需要重新定义其人力资源。人力资源管理是一个平台,可以在诸如CERA之类的多元化企业中满足工人的需求。扩张和多元化给人力资源经理以色列·托宾(Israel Tobin)带来了挑战。

但是,他们的人力资源管理方法通常适用于CERA的部门。例如,在人力资源管理部门,人力资源经理侧重于一种有效的方法来应对员工的短缺以及如何在熟练劳动力的供求之间取得平衡(Shih,2015)。 CERA的工作分析和设计方法会有所不同,因为该公司在不同业务中的职位不同。

CERA人力资源规划 人力资源管理代写

对于CERA,我们可以将HR Planning定义为将组织目标转化为熟练劳动力,工人人数和分配的人力资源目标的一种方式。从组织目标出发,我们制定了集成的组织政策。

人力资源计划涉及由Kramer等人建立的事件的逻辑顺序。 (2014年,第211页)

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以色列·托宾(Israel Tobin)和他的团队通过收集有关悉尼大部分地区以及扩展到新南威尔士州之后可能出现的需求的所需市场信息,从而开始了人力资源规划过程,这些需求也将在他们的市场扩展到悉尼其他地区之后出现。

然后,他们试图利用这些市场需求将其转化为人员编制。人力资源管理代写

他们试图做出的战略选择是预测劳动力需求和劳动力供应,并确定差距的性质和规模。他们使用统计和判断方法将市场需求预测为劳动力需求和劳动力供应。找出差距后,团队继续进行目标设定和计划。有多种选择来缩小需求/供应缺口,具体取决于是否存在预测的人员过剩或人员短缺(Kramer等人)。

针对公司目前和五年期间需要特定能力的特定工人组和领域进行了需求预测。预测人员需求的最有用的领先指标是政府在基础设施建设方面的支出以及用于发展商业和居民的政策和计划。

他们发现,确定劳动力供应比确定公司的劳动力需求更为直接。

CERA着眼于各种职位和技能类别的当前人员配备,然后必须根据预期的工作终止,工人晋升,调动到其他领域,自愿离职和退休来调整这些数字。过渡矩阵(也称为马尔可夫分析)是组织用来研究工人以及他们如何在不同的工作类别中进出组织的分析工具。以色列·托宾(Israel Tobin)在与土木工程和规划部门的会议中应用了马尔可夫分析。该团队将劳动力需求和劳动力供应数据的摘要绘制到两个电子表格中,如下所示。

人力资源管理代写
人力资源管理代写

通过分析以上数据,很明显,在未来五年中,CERA将面临劳动力短缺。该分析涵盖了对可能的劳动力需求的五年预测。预计该公司将雇用更多的工人来满足市场需求,并为其新市场制定预期的增长战略。为避免劳力短缺,制定了目标计划,并按速度和可撤消性对选项进行了分类。

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资料来源:(Kramar et al。,2014,p.216)

重要的是要注意,当根据上述发现制定人力资源目标和特定计划时,您必须考虑组织和组织文化的战略选择。

在确定行动方案之后,CERA需要执行该程序并进行评估。实施会采取旨在影响计划团队设定目标的特定行动。观察到过程的固有步骤可以使目标朝着正确的方向发展,并确保这些目标的预期目标与设计的计划完全一致。整个计划要求问责制,权威和可用于实现既定目标的资源。

计划的评估通常定期进行,因此可以按特定的间隔或连续进行。

它是重要的公司计划的重要组成部分,这些计划旨在确保计划目标得以实现。为了在实际实施之前具有有效性,已采取了某些措施。这些措施可能包括统计目标和时间表,对受该计划影响的工人的调查,可以有效衡量实施计划结果的任何其他方法。然后将已实施计划的总体目标与整个计划的结果进行比较,以查看它们是否有助于解决人力资源问题。从结果中,从评估中获得的经验将用于修改以前用于长期计划的策略。在人力资源规划之后,CERA将能够专注于分析和工作设计。另一个重要部分是赋予Rachel Amaro的工作设计职责。

工作设计 人力资源管理代写

CERA需要进行分析和工作设计(Arnold和Randall,2016年)。工作分析和设计是创造和增强工作创新能力的关键部分之一。如果不进行完整的工作流程分析,作业分析和作业设计,实施HR计划策略几乎是困难的(Lawrence,2010)。经理需要对单位工作流程进行评估,以实现最大的生产力和成功。

为了让她理解此过程,她还必须通过作业分析获得有关其工作单位中存在的作业的信息的详细信息。当她对工作流程有更好的了解时,她可以重组工作,以确保该单位可以实现其既定目标,并且该单位的工作人员也变得充满动力,满意,安全,健康并取得成就。这对于CERA的创造力和创新至关重要。

CERA业务策略影响工作的设计和协同工作方式。人力资源管理代写

该公司不同于其他基于成本竞争的公司。 CERA在服务/产品差异化和创新的基础上进行竞争(Kistner,2010年)。例如,在公共部门和非营利组织中,向客户提供服务的方式很大程度上取决于工作的设计方式。因此,工作设计取决于组织开展活动的环境以及组织在环境中如何定位自己的战略选择。

工作设计定义了工作范围,工作执行方式以及与工作相关的每项任务(Kramar等人,2014年,第192页)。它涉及任务的更改或在现有作业中如何执行作业。这是CERA感兴趣的领域。这是瑞秋需要完成的工作。

另一方面,工作分析对人力资源实践也有一些贡献。这是收集有关感兴趣工作的信息的过程(Morgeson和Humphrey,2006年)。要进行工作分析,它涉及工作流分析,问卷调查,访谈,调查和观察,以收集有关该工作的所有信息。工作分析在工作重组,员工学习与发展,人力资源规划,选择,职业规划,绩效管理和工作评估中很重要

草案办公室的工作设计

任何工作设计都有四种方法:

激励方法–该方法确定工作设计应遵循工作自主性,目标明确性,外部工作反馈,社交互动,任务多样性,任务身份,技能水平要求,技能多样性,内在工作反馈,任务重要性,学习指导

机械方法–专注于工作专业化,任务简化,工具和程序的专业化,单一活动,工作简化,重复,随着时间的推移和工作自动化

生物方法–使用力量,举重,轮班工作,耐力,身体差异,腕部运动,噪音,气候和工作时间来解释工作设计。

感知运动方法–该方法集中于照明,信息处理要求,程序,工作场所布局,显示,信息输入要求,信息输出要求,记忆要求,印刷的工作材料,解释工作设计的压力和无聊。

选择哪种方法取决于组织的策略和文化。最合适的取决于她想要实现的结果。

在CERA案中,结果是加强起草办公室工人的创新能力。

人力资源管理代写
人力资源管理代写

(来源:https://image.slidesharecdn.com/module3analysisanddesignofwork-130722103715-phpapp02/95/module3-analysis-and-design-of-work-30-638.jpg?cb=1374489541)

在起草部门,雷切尔必须进行试点工作设计,以促进CERA的创造力和创新。使用方法将完全取决于该目标(Ceylan,2013)。塞兰(Ceylan)正在研究组织的创新绩效,特别是所谓的基于承诺的人力资源实践。

HRM Innovations有选择地确定最适合该工作的人才(Jain,Mathew和Bedi,2012年)。他们建立了人力资源创新与公司绩效和组织文化之间的联系。

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来源:https://image.slidesharecdn.com/jobdesign-120909064612-phpapp01/95/job-design-4-728.jpg?cb=1347173254)

CERA的制图办公室最合适的方法工作设计是机械的,感知动力和激励性的。

永久性的工作设计方法–关注员工的心理能力和极限。该方法的主要目标是以确保工作不超过人们心理能力和极限的方式设计工作。这种方法通常尝试通过设计作业以减少信息处理需求来扩展可靠性,安全性和用户响应。此方法适用于CERA。工程工作涉及大量的脑力劳动,因此使用永动机方法设计这份工作将是促进创新和创造力的最佳选择之一。

激励性工作设计–她将专注于影响员工心理和动力的工作特征。人力资源管理代写

态度差异(例如内在动机和外在动机,满意度和工作参与)以及行为变量(例如绩效和出勤)是工作设计的最重要产物。为了增加工作的意义,工作设计强调了激励方法。

机械方法–主要目的在于降低工作的复杂性,从而通过简化工作使其达到分配给任何从事该工作的人都可以接受很少培训就可以完成的程度,从而提高员工效率。这些方法的重点是创建一个可以执行工作专业化,技能简化和重复的概念的设计。

这些方法适用于需要进行试验工作设计的起草办公室。这些方法将提高绘图领域的创造力和创新性。为了实现这些目标,这些方法创造了效率,动机,专业化和学习过程。

结论 人力资源管理代写

人力资源规划是组织要在市场上具有竞争力的人力资源管理的核心。人力资源规划与管理层的其他职能一样重要。人力资源规划可帮助公司在劳动力和市场响应能力方面实现未来发展。

从这份报告中可以清楚地看出,CERA在未来五年内将实现工作效率和效力。它需要将其人力资源计划目标和工作设计与组织的战略目标和文化相结合。显然,它将在其五年战略计划中遇到劳动力短缺的问题。为了在澳大利亚实现扩张和增长,该公司需要进行人力资源规划以及工作分析和设计。

人力资源规划和工作设计是人力资源管理的两个不可分割的领域。要进行工作设计,必须计划工作并制定人力资源计划目标。规划是工作设计的基础。在那里,该报告首先检查了CERA HR的要求,以在进行工作设计之前建立所需的员工队伍。

建议 人力资源管理代写

雷切尔·阿马罗(Rachel Amaro)需要转变范式的思维方式,并了解现代人力资源规划的需求,并从中受益。正如本报告所概述的那样,在起草部门中如何进行工作设计将变得很清楚。本报告建议进行分析和工作设计,以使其不断成长并实现扩展前景。这样一来,员工将受到激励,将拥有专业化的技能,将使用更少的资源,将提高效率,并最终创造一个促进创造力和创新的环境。

本报告旨在就如何在她的选秀管理办公室设计职位以支持创新行为向Rachel Amaro提供建议。 就她而言,她认为没有必要在人力资源管理方面进行其他工作。 她认为这是增加单词工作量的方法,但是如果没有人力资源管理,他们的表现会很好。 为了进行这项工作设计,她需要将人力资源计划和工作设计结合在一起,两者一起使用以实现一个共同的目标。 因此,在本报告中,我们将建立CERA的人力资源规划和工作设计。

References  人力资源管理代写

Arnold, J. and Randall, R. (2016). Work psychology. 6th ed. New York: Pearson Education.

Shih, K. (2015). Labor market openness, h-1b visa policy, and the scale of international student enrollment in the united states. Econ Inq, 54(1), pp.121-138.

Ceylan, C. (2013). Commitment-based HR practices, different types of innovation activities and firm innovation performance. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24(1), 208-226. doi: 10.1080/09585192.2012.680601

Jain, H., Mathew, M., & Bedi, A. (2012). HRM innovations by Indian and foreign MNCs operating in India: a survey of HR professionals. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23(5), 1006-1018.
doi: 10.1080/09585192.2012.651332

Lawrence, P. (2010). The key job design problem is still Taylorism. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 31(2-3), pp.412-421.

Kistner, L. (2010). Determining and executing new product strategy: Integrating the product innovation charter and the fuzzy front-end. Doctor of Philosophy. Capella University.

Morgeson, F. and Humphrey, S. (2006). The Work Design Questionnaire (WDQ): Developing and validating a comprehensive measure for assessing job design and the nature of work. Journal of Applied Psychology, 91(6), pp.1321-1339.

人力资源管理代写
人力资源管理代写

 

 
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