Applied Biostatistics Research Outline



Applied Biostatistics Research Outline

Research Outline

Title: Healthcare Reforms and Controversy

Healthcare代写 Title: Healthcare Reforms and Controversy. Healthcare is whether the Affordable Care Act has improved health care access and quality.


The main question that has been raised for years regarding healthcare is whether the Affordable Care Act has improved health care access and quality.

Thesis: Although the Affordable Care Act was introduced to solve health care access issues, it has continuously been reformed to make it better and controversies impact it in equal measure.

Argument: Health care in America has become better and accessible by millions of people who could not have accessed it previously. However, some of the issues it seeks to address have remained unsolved and have continued to be debated as modifications are proposed amid controversies.

Background Healthcare代写

i. Healthcare Sector in America: Over $3.65 trillion is spent by citizens on health care in 2018. Its marked a rise by 4.4 percent from 2017 (Herman, 2019). The $3.65 trillion spendings on                     health care translate to $11,212 per person.

ii. Healthcare Reforms: The cost of health care has continued to rise and has continued to consume a large proportion of the federal budget (Amaded, 2019). The cost of preventive care has                    become unaffordable.

iii. Healthcare Controversy: Affordable Care Act is dogged with various controversies, including the individual mandate, Medicaid, exchanges, insurance regulations, and cost                                               (Courtemanche, Marton, Ukert, Yelowitz, & Zapata, 2017).

iv. Benefits of Healthcare: Broad insurance coverage, lower infant mortality, quality care etc.


Literature Review Healthcare代写

a. Research Design: The research will use a systematic literature review and analysis to investigate the issues of reforms and controversies in health care.

b. Research instruments: Various studies conduct surveys where they use interviews and qiestionnaires as well as observation. Some will secondary data from governement studies.

c. Population and Sample size: The population will be defined by various quantitative studies.

d. Dependent and independent variables: Healthcare reforms and controversies will independent variables while health access, quality, coverage etc will be the dependent variables.

Findings and Analysis Healthcare代写

a. Hypothesis testing: Random samples of both null and alternative hypothesis will be analyzed.

b. Statistical tests and analysis: Parametric tests, non-parametric test, correlation test, comparison of means, and regression tests can be used.

c. Mutivariable methods: The research can use matrix plot, correlation analysis, principle components and factor analysis, cluster analysis among others.

d. Principles of multivariate methods: Such as multiples variables, relationships, independent and dependent variables etc

Annotated Bibliography Healthcare代写

i. Causal impact of the Affordable Care Act:

ii. ACA impacted on care for the women

iii. ACA reform and infant mortality

iv. Reason for Medicaid expansion and non-expansion

v. ACA contribution to access of opioid

Recommendations Healthcare代写

Focus on futuristic needs and changes to be addressed to make health care better.



Give a summary of the findings from the literature reviews

References Healthcare代写

Amaded, K. (2019). Why reform health care. Retrieved from

Courtemanche, C., Marton, J., Ukert, B., Yelowitz, A., & Zapata, D. (2017). Early impacts of the Affordable Care Act on health insurance coverage in Medicaid expansion and non‐expansion states. Journal of Policy Analysis and Management, 36(1), 178-210.

Herman, B. (2019). America’s health care economy keeps ballooning. Retrieved from


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