Comparing Sculptures of Ancient India and Greece

比较古代印度和希腊的雕塑

Something that has been a constant in the human civilization, whether it be in form of paintings or pottery or ···

Art

Something that has been a constant in the human civilization, whether it be in form of paintings or pottery or simple carvings or sketches. As seen in many literatures on the origin of art. It first originated in the form of carving in caves, which eventually paved way for the renowned 3D art form, sculpture. As can be seen about the Venus figurines found in Western Europe.

Having its roots in Africa, sculpture art has gradually spread around the world, becoming wildly eminent in Greece and sub-continent (modern day India). Being an art form, sculptures reflected the human characteristics. And notions of the people of the above-mentioned areas. Though practiced in almost the same fashion, the cultural and religious interpretation of the sculptures varied, followed by the variance in their physical demeanor. And their public manifesto, for the people of Greece and India.

As mentioned earlier, sculptures had religious and cultural significance for both Greeks and the Indians. They were fashioned in elegant aesthetic manner, displaying various gods the people believed in. Sculptures found in Greece portrayed more of human features, even their Gods and Goddesses, although fine specimens of beauty, were fashioned like a human body. Hades, Zeus, Aphrodite, Hera, Athena, Apollo and many other mythical Gods are still a sight to watch in the modern world.

译文:艺术 印度希腊文化

在人类文明中一直存在的事物,无论是绘画,陶器还是简单的雕刻或素描形式。从许多关于艺术起源的文献中可以看出。它最初起源于在洞穴中雕刻的形式,最终为著名的3D艺术形式雕塑铺平了道路。可以看出在西欧发现的金星雕像。

雕塑艺术起源于非洲,已逐渐在世界范围内传播,并在希腊和次大陆(现代印度)变得举世闻名。雕塑是一种艺术形式,反映了人类的特征。以及上述地区的人们的观念。尽管以几乎相同的方式进行操作,但雕塑的文化和宗教解释各不相同,其物理行为也随之变化。以及针对希腊和印度人民的公开宣言。

如前所述,雕塑对希腊人和印第安人都具有宗教和文化意义。它们以高雅的美学方式制成,展示了人们所信奉的各种神灵。在希腊发现的雕塑描绘出更多的人文特征,甚至包括他们的神灵和女神,尽管都是美丽的美丽标本,但它们的造型却像人体一样。冥王,冥王,宙斯,阿芙罗狄蒂,赫拉,雅典娜,阿波罗和许多其他神话般的神在现代世界中仍然值得一看。


Similarly

Indians too considered some of their busts their divine Gods, but they weren’t necessarily human forms, certain animals too were considered divine deities. Elephant named as Indra, a mouse known as Ganesha, an owl called Lakshmi, a swan named Sarasvati. And the famous lion called Durga are some of the famous Indian mythical Gods (“Sculpture in India”, 2013). Evolving from the sacred Indian myths, these Gods are still worshipped by Indians.

Furthermore, all these Gods were considered to master certain element of nature, or certain human trait, therefore they were designed to portray as such. In Greek culture, God of love (made most beautiful), hate (made the ugliest), winds (made strong), trickery (made having a deceptive face), so on and so forth were praised and summoned when the people were in some sort of turmoil.

However, there was no concept of some Universal Deity ruling over all these Demi gods. Whereas in Indian culture along with the Gods controlling various attributes. There was a concept of a Universal God, who’s bust is the most magnificent of all the Indian gods and is considered most powerful; Shiva. These cultural and religious manifestations in the form of sculptures are of prime importance to Greeks and Indians, even to this day.

译文:相似地 印度希腊文化

印第安人也把他们的某些半身像看作神的神灵,但他们不一定是人类形态,某些动物也被视为神灵。名为Indra的大象,名为Ganesha的小鼠,名为Lasshmi的猫头鹰,名为Sarasvati的天鹅。著名的杜尔加狮子(Durga)是印度著名的神话中的神灵(“ Sculpture in India”,2013年)。这些神从神圣的印度神话演变而来,仍然被印第安人崇拜。

此外,所有这些神都被认为掌握了自然的某些元素或某些人的特质,因此它们被设计为描绘成自然。在希腊文化中,爱神(最美丽),仇恨(最丑陋),风(强壮),诡计(使人面容欺骗)等等在人们处于某个国家时受到赞扬和召唤。有点动荡。

但是,没有关于所有这些黛咪神的普遍神性裁决的概念。而在印度文化中,众神掌控着各种属性。有一个宇宙神的概念,他的半身像是所有印度神中最宏伟的,被认为是最强大的。湿婆直到今天,雕塑形式的这些文化和宗教表现形式对希腊人和印度人都至关重要。


宗教学论文代写
宗教学论文代写

Apart from the diverse cultural and religious implication

The physical appearance of the sculptures of the two different regions varied too. Hinduism with its sculpture art was at its peak from 300 B.C to 500A.D, followed by Buddhist sculptures. Whereas the Greek sculpture evolved around 1100 B.C to 146 B.C (Barton, 2002).  Although the time difference isn’t much but the different geographical areas played the key role in the variant physical forms. With its simple, tranquil and lucid style the Greek sculptures were the epitome of poise.

These busts emphasized on human expressions, sculpted to display sheer beauty. With little to no color, these sculptures not only played a religious role but were an important part of the Greek sports and everyday life in general. Whereas the extravagant Indian sculptures with their brilliant, stupendous strokes manifested the rich Indian culture and reflected the vibrant customs people followed. Painted in exotic colors and portraying detailed expressions of anger and felicity, Indian statues had a class of their own.

Along with the physical form, the displaying of these ingenious art forms was exuberant. Marble, bronze, stone and clay were mostly employed for the creation of these innovative forms. Both the Greeks and the Indians used expensive minerals to sculpt the masterpieces which were then to be displayed either in temples or in public places.

译文:除了多样的文化和宗教含义 印度希腊文化

两个不同区域的雕塑的外观也各不相同。印度教的雕塑艺术从公元前300年到公元500年达到顶峰,其次是佛教雕塑。希腊雕塑大约在公元前1100年发展到公元前146年(巴顿,2002年)。尽管时差不大,但是不同的地理区域在变化的物理形式中起着关键作用。希腊雕塑以其简单,宁静和清醒的风格成为了风度翩翩的缩影。

这些半身像强调人的表情,雕刻后表现出纯粹的美感。这些雕塑几乎没有颜色,不但起着宗教作用,而且还是希腊体育和日常生活中的重要组成部分。奢侈的印度雕塑以其灿烂而壮观的笔触表现出浓郁的印度文化,并反映出人们追随的朝气蓬勃的习俗。印度雕像涂有异国色彩,描绘了愤怒和喜怒哀乐的详细表达,印度雕像有自己的一类。

除物理形式外,这些巧妙的艺术形式的展示也十分活跃。大理石,青铜,石材和黏土主要用于创造这些创新形式。希腊人和印度人都使用昂贵的矿物来雕刻杰作,然后将这些杰作陈列在寺庙或公共场所。


The arrival of Hellenistic culture

The Greek sculptures were no longer produced to serve religion, rather they were a sign of aristocracy (Morriss-Kay, 2010). They, especially Plutus (God of wealth), were used to adorn mansions owned by emperors, and kept up in temples. Although the Indian sculptures did follow much of the same routine, yet their use for adornment was a bit different, where they we engraved in shrine walls, sometimes mounted on raised platforms inside temples, like Somnath and Meenakshi, but never used as a sign to present extravagance.

Whether Greek or Indian, the art of sculpture formation holds a significant value in religion and culture. Their features and use might differ making their perception by people differ. But this only reflects the diversity in the field of art and how it has managed to evolve with time. Even now, the sculptures hold immense importance whether it be in the cinematic world, or some temple or simply as a monument used for adornment. The progression in this art form forces one to think of the influence it has in other fields, preferably Robotics!

译文:希腊文化的到来 印度希腊文化

希腊雕塑不再是为宗教服务而生产的,而是贵族的标志(Morriss-Kay,2010年)。他们,特别是Plutus(财富之神),曾被用来装饰皇帝所拥有的豪宅,并被保存在庙宇中。尽管印度的雕塑确实遵循相同的程序,但它们在装饰上的使用却有所不同,我们在神殿的墙壁上进行雕刻,有时将其安装在寺庙内的高台上,例如Somnath和Meenakshi,但从未用作标志。现在的铺张浪费。

无论是希腊人还是印度人,雕塑形成的艺术在宗教和文化中均具有重要价值。它们的功能和用途可能会有所不同,从而使人们的看法有所不同。但这仅反映了艺术领域的多样性以及它如何随着时间而发展。即使在现在,无论是在电影世界中,还是在一些寺庙中,或者只是作为装饰用的纪念碑,雕塑都具有极其重要的意义。这种艺术形式的发展迫使人们思考它在其他领域的影响,最好是机器人技术!


References

Barton, E. D. (2002). The history of sculpture. In The new book of Knowledge.

Morriss-Kay, G.M. (2010). The evolution of human artistic creativity. Journal of Anatomy, 

216(2), 158–176.

Sculpture in India. (2013, August 12). Retrieved August 18, 2017, from

http://arthistorysummerize.info/Art./art-of-india-in-ancient-times/sculpture-in-india/

 

宗教学论文代写
宗教学论文代写

 

 
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