Are the actions of Business Organizations regarding Ageism Ethically Justified?

商业组织有关年龄歧视的行为在伦理上是否合理?

商业组织代写 Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly essential for Australian companies in the last few years. 

Introduction

介绍

Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly essential for Australian companies in the last few years. According to Humanrights.gov.au (2008), the CSR concept is usually assumed to mean that organizations have a degree of responsibility for the environment, economic, and social implications of their activities. One of the significant components of the CSR concept is the idea that organizations are responsible to their stakeholders, owners, and are also accountable to a broader group of stakeholders (Humanrights.gov.au, 2008). Labor unions have shown to be the key stakeholders in forming CSR.

A considerable portion of CSR is concerned with how management ought to recognize and engage stakeholders and how managers ought to define, measure, and report the effect of activities of an organization on stakeholders. However, CSR is faced with several problems, such as ageism in the workplace. Ageism is discrimination or prejudice based on a person’s age (Rupp et al., 2006). According to McDonald (2012), the older population of Australian workers is concerned about losing their jobs and the possibility of finding a new job.

Also, most Australian organizations have admitted that the age limit for potential employees is 50 years. The purpose of this paper is to find out whether the actions of business organizations regarding ageism are ethically justified. Firstly, this paper explains the methodology of the research. Secondly, this paper discusses the views of stakeholders and business organizations. Lastly, this paper provides my assessment of the issue and how my opinions about ageism have changed.

译文:在过去的几年中,企业社会责任(CSR)对澳大利亚公司越来越重要。根据Humanrights.gov.au(2008)的说法,企业社会责任的概念通常被认为是指组织对其活动的环境,经济和社会影响负有一定程度的责任。企业社会责任概念的重要组成部分之一是组织对利益相关者,所有者负责,并对更广泛的利益相关者负责(Humanrights.gov.au,2008)。工会已被证明是形成企业社会责任的关键利益相关者。

企业社会责任的相当一部分涉及管理层应如何认识和吸引利益相关者,以及管理者应如何定义,衡量和报告组织活动对利益相关者的影响。但是,企业社会责任面临一些问题,例如工作场所的年龄歧视。年龄歧视是基于人的年龄的歧视或偏见(Rupp等,2006)。根据麦当劳(McDonald,2012)的说法,澳大利亚老年人口中的人担心失去工作以及寻找新工作的可能性。 商业组织代写

此外,大多数澳大利亚组织都承认,潜在雇员的年龄限制为50岁。本文的目的是找出商业组织针对年龄歧视的行为是否在道德上是合理的。首先,本文解释了研究的方法论。其次,本文讨论了利益相关者和商业组织的观点。最后,本文提供了我对该问题的评估以及我对老年主义的看法如何发生了变化。

Methodology

This paper aims at finding out whether the actions and business organizations regarding ageism during recruitment are ethically justified. This paper is based on primary and secondary data collection methods. The primary data collection methods included focus group discussions with the members of the Australian Workers’ Union. On the other hand, the secondary data collection methods included an interview with one of the managers in Lighting Bolt Co. Pty Ltd. I was able to perform a focus group discussion with members of the Australian Worker’s Union. I was not able to schedule an interview with the managing director at Lightning Bolt Company. Later, I was connected to one of the human resource managers at the company. I successfully interviewed the HR manager.

方法 商业组织代写

译文:本文旨在探讨在招聘过程中有关年龄歧视的行动和商业组织是否在道德上是合理的。本文基于主要和辅助数据收集方法。主要的数据收集方法包括与澳大利亚工人工会成员进行的焦点小组讨论。另一方面,辅助数据收集方法包括对Lighting Bolt Co. Pty Ltd的一位经理的采访。我得以与澳大利亚工人工会的成员进行了焦点小组讨论。我无法安排对闪电螺栓公司董事总经理的采访。后来,我与公司的一名人力资源经理建立了联系。我成功采访了人力资源经理。

Ethical reasoning that the stakeholder is using to formulate their Arguments about Ageism at the Workplace

The ageism debate is probably the most prevalent within the employment field, and recently within the employment field, there has been much anti-ageist legislation. Upon conducting a focus group discussion with members of the Australian Workers’ Association, I realized that the trade union uses ethical reasoning to justify their arguments about anti-ageism. Firstly, the members of the Australian Workers’ Association argued that one of the ethical arguments for their anti-ageism views is that it is morally right for the aging people to have equal access to employment as the younger generation.

They theorized that the interests of the older citizens in searching for meaningful work are usually treated as being fundamentally less essential than the parallel interests of the younger population. As such, senior citizens are generally deprived of meaningful employment, even when they are better qualified than younger people.

Secondly, the members noted that ageism at the Workplace infringes the moral principle of portraying equal concern for the well-being of older citizens. The focus group discussion members also note that an all-inclusive universal aging agenda and action plan for its application is contained within the International Plan of Action and Political Declaration, under the umbrellas of the UN, espoused in 2002, in Madrid, Spain. The group members stated that this universal aging agenda accentuates the importance of the older population and their crucial role in the Workplace and society in general.

利益相关者用来在工作场所中制定关于年龄歧视的论点的道德推理

译文:年龄歧视的争论可能是就业领域中最普遍的话题,最近在就业领域中,已经出现了许多反衰老立法。在与澳大利亚工人协会成员进行焦点小组讨论后,我意识到工会使用道德推理来证明他们关于抗衰老主义的论据是正确的。首先,澳大利亚工人协会的成员认为,他们的抗衰老观点的伦理学观点之一是,老龄化的人与年轻一代享有平等的就业机会在道义上是正确的。

他们认为,老年人在寻找有意义的工作中的利益通常被认为比年轻人口中的平行利益根本没有必要。因此,即使老年人比年轻人有更好的资格,他们也普遍被剥夺了有意义的工作。 商业组织代写

其次,成员们指出,工作场所的年龄歧视违反了道德原则,即对老年人的福祉给予同等关注。焦点小组讨论成员还注意到,全面适用的全球老龄化议程及其适用的行动计划载于国际行动计划和政治宣言,该计划在联合国的支持下于2002年在西班牙马德里举行。该小组成员指出,这一普遍的老龄化议程突出了老年人口的重要性及其在工作场所和整个社会中的关键作用。

Additionally, the group members argued that ageism at work could have social costs.

They noted that ageism could lead to an increased risk of the victims living in poverty in their later years. One of them claimed that without the opportunities to access and fully participating in paid employment, such individuals could be forced to depend on pension in their later years. One of the members also noted that people, including the aged population, have the right to an adequate standard of living and social security under international human rights. Thus, ageism can lead to poverty in older age, which can result in difficulties in covering necessary expenses, such as food, healthcare, and clothing. Therefore, the older generation should be given equal employment opportunities as the younger generation.

The ethicality of the means by which the trade union presses its issues is through the egalitarian theory of justice. The egalitarian theory is a theoretical perception that accentuates equal treatment. And equality across age, political beliefs, and gender, among others (Knight, 2013). Egalitarianism was employed by Karl Marx when he was creating his Marxist philosophy. And by John Locke when he suggested that people had natural rights (Knight, 2013). The main principle of egalitarianism is the belief that all individuals are primarily equal.

The social perspective of egalitarianism considers methods of reducing economic inequalities among the people. Whereas the political perspective is concerned with the ways of ensuring equal rights and treatment of different groups of individuals (Knight, 2013). The egalitarian theory applies to the trade union’s anti-ageist views because the trade union seeks to equal employment rights. And treatment of all people regardless of their age. Therefore, equality is essential for justice.

此外,小组成员认为,工作中的年龄歧视可能会带来社会成本。 商业组织代写

译文:他们指出,年龄歧视可能导致受害者在晚年生活在贫困中的风险增加。其中一位声称,如果没有机会获得并充分参与有偿就业,这些人在晚年可能会被迫依靠养恤金。一名成员还指出,包括老年人在内的人民有权根据国际人权获得适足的生活水准和社会保障。因此,年龄歧视会导致老年人的贫困,从而可能导致难以支付必要的费用,例如食物,医疗保健和衣物。因此,应给老一辈与年轻一辈平等的就业机会。

工会解决其问题所用手段的道德性是通过平等主义正义理论进行的。平均主义理论是强调平等对待的一种理论认识。以及年龄,政治信仰和性别等方面的平等(奈特,2013年)。马克思主义创立马克思主义哲学时就采用平等主义。约翰·洛克(John Locke)提出人们享有自然权利时(奈特,2013年)。平等主义的主要原则是相信所有人基本平等。

平等主义的社会观点考虑了减少人民之间经济不平等的方法。政治观点涉及确保平等权利和对不同群体的人的待遇的方式(奈特,2013年)。平均主义理论适用于工会的抗衰老主义观点,因为工会寻求平等的就业权利。并对待所有人,不论他们的年龄。因此,平等对于正义至关重要。

Ethical reasoning that the Business is using to formulate their Arguments about Ageism at the Workplace

Business organizations use different ethical reasoning to formulate their views about ageism. I interviewed one of the managers Lightning Bolt Co. to find out what ethical reasoning organizations use to develop their opinions about ageism. To begin with, the manager argued that they prefer younger trainees because this preference is suitably. And practically explained as a reasonable economic strategy. This means that when making employment decisions, hiring and training investments may be involved. As such, organizations have ethical and genuine economic reasons for selecting job applicants with longer estimated working life or term.

Secondly, the manager noted that the ethical reasoning that businesses use in the formulation of their arguments. About ageism is that the older employees are inflexible, physically incompetent, and may lack technological skills. He argued that the more aging population is made up of obstinate, physically incapable workers. And employees who do not have technical skills and capabilities. This is opposed to the younger employees who are tech-savvy, physically able to perform any task, and flexible. The manager noted that his organization does not employ such aged people. Because they make it hard for an organization to gain a good return on its training investment.

He also claimed that most organizations tend to prefer the younger generation because they are ambitious to advance past store work. And who are likely to form a pool of trained employees who would be quickly promoted to other areas of the organization. Therefore, business organizations may discriminate against people based on their age. Because of the belief that older people lack technical skills, are inflexible, and lack the physical capacity to do a job.

Thirdly, the manager also claimed that the older employees have a period during. Which they are active and should give a chance to the younger and talented employees. This is informed by his notion that organizations require continuous renewal. Consequently, the aged workers ought to provide opportunities to the younger generation of employees who would be the “new blood” of the company. The manager referred to this concept as the vampire theory.

企业用于在工作场所中制定关于年龄歧视的论点的道德推理

译文:商业组织使用不同的道德推理来提出他们对年龄歧视的看法。我采访了一位经理闪电公司(Lightning Bolt Co.),以了解道德推理组织用来发展对年龄歧视的看法的原因。首先,经理认为他们更喜欢年轻的学员,因为这种偏好是适当的。并在实践中解释为合理的经济策略。这意味着在制定就业决策时,可能会涉及雇用和培训投资。因此,组织有道德和真实的经济理由来选择估计工作寿命或期限更长的求职者。

其次,经理指出企业在论证中使用的道德推理。关于年龄歧视的观点是,年长的雇员缺乏灵活性,身体上无能为力并且可能缺乏技术技能。他认为,人口老龄化是由顽固的,身体上无能为力的工人组成的。和没有技术技能和能力的员工。与那些精通技术,身体上能够执行任何任务且灵活的年轻员工相反。经理指出,他的组织没有雇用这些老年人。因为它们使组织很难获得良好的培训投资回报。

他还声称,大多数组织倾向于青睐年轻一代,因为他们雄心勃勃地推进过去的商店工作。而且他们很可能会组成一组训练有素的员工,这些员工将很快被提升到组织的其他领域。因此,商业组织可能会根据他们的年龄来歧视他们。因为人们认为老年人缺乏技术技能,缺乏灵活性并且缺乏从事工作的身体能力。 商业组织代写

第三,经理还声称年长的雇员有一段时期。他们很活跃,应该给年轻和有才华的员工一个机会。他的观点表明组织需要不断更新。因此,老年工人应为年轻一代的员工提供机会,这将成为公司的“新血液”。管理者将此概念称为吸血鬼理论。

Additionally, the manager believes that the aging employees are not well suited to the changing nature of contemporary organizations.

He said that in contemporary organizations, creativity, and technological advances prevail. This makes it hard for the aging population to fit in these organizations because they lack the skills and the competencies required. In addition to this view, the manager believes that despite the talents, loyalty, and experience of the aging employees, they still do not have the “image” that a company may want to show.

Lastly, the manager argued that the wide-ranging physical training necessary for an employee to carry out a specific role justifies ageism in the Workplace. He claimed that the organization is warranted under these circumstances to limit the recruitment to a younger group to allow the organization to recover the investment in training because the younger people tend to learn more quickly. And have the physical capabilities to engage in physical training as compared to the older people. Thus, business organizations claim that their ethical reasoning for employing younger people is because younger people learn quickly. And can engage in wide-ranging physical training.

此外,经理认为,老龄员工不太适合现代组织不断变化的性质。 商业组织代写

译文:他说,在当代组织中,创造力和技术进步占上风。由于老龄化人口缺乏所需的技能和能力,因此这使其难以适应这些组织。除了这种观点之外,经理还认为,尽管老龄员工的才能,忠诚度和经验丰富,但他们仍然没有公司想要展现的“形象”。

最后,经理辩称,员工履行特定角色所需的广泛体育锻炼证明了工作场所的年龄歧视是合理的。他声称,在这种情况下,该组织应将招聘仅限于一个年轻群体,以使该组织能够收回培训方面的投资,因为年轻人往往学习得更快。与老年人相比,他们具有进行体育锻炼的身体能力。因此,商业组织声称他们雇用年轻人的道德推理是因为年轻人学习很快。并可以从事广泛的体育锻炼。

商业组织代写
商业组织代写

The ethicality of the means by which organizations justify ageism at the Workplace is through utilitarianism.

The utilitarian theory accentuates outcomes (Dietz & Kleinlogel, 2015). It can be viewed as the standpoint that the results validate the methods given that the outcomes of the actions accumulate more benefits than harm through stakeholders comparative to the alternative action (Dietz & Kleinlogel, 2015). In the utilitarian theory, activities are considered right or good if they maximize pleasure or happiness to society (Dietz & Kleinlogel, 2015).

The ethicality of the means by which the organizations press their ageism views is through utilitarianism. Because the utility in the utilitarian theory is recognized as the greatest good. And most of it would be generated as a result of ageism. In this case, the utility can be measured by the number of years that young people. Can work more than the number of years that older people would have worked had they been given the job.

组织在工作场所证明年龄歧视的手段的道德性是通过功利主义实现的。

译文:功利主义理论强调结果(Dietz&Kleinlogel,2015年)。可以认为,与其他行动相比,行动的结果通过利益相关者积累的收益大于损害,因此结果可以验证方法(Dietz&Kleinlogel,2015)。在功利主义理论中,如果活动能使社会获得最大的快乐或幸福,就被认为是正确的或良好的(Dietz&Kleinlogel,2015)。 商业组织代写

组织表达其年龄主义观点的手段的道德性是通过功利主义实现的。因为功利主义理论中的效用被认为是最大的利益。而且大多数是由于年龄歧视而产生的。在这种情况下,效用可以通过年轻人的年数来衡量。可以工作的时间超过了老年人获得工作后的工作年限。

Conclusion

Therefore, based on the ethical reasoning of the trade union and business arguments. I think that age discrimination may be ethical and unethical. From the views of the group members, age discrimination is unethical because older people have a moral right to equal. Access to employment the same as the younger generation, ageism infringes the ethical principle of portraying equal concern for the well-being of the older citizens, and ageism can have social costs. However, these views do not address a balance of costs versus benefits. Indeed, the aging population may not possess the same technical skills and capabilities as the younger generation.

Also, employing senior citizens does not provide a good return on training investment. And the aging people may have a period during which they are active. In this case, the cost and benefits of employing older employees can be balanced by providing extensive training to more senior employees. So that they can match the skills and competencies of the younger generation. Therefore, hiring aging employees may not be seen as an economic strategy. But cost and benefits can be balanced by providing extensive training to older employees.

Regarding the business arguments of ageism, I think that it is unethical to discriminate against a potential employee based on their age. This is because older employees may have more experience than the young people. They also have a right to equal employment opportunities as the younger generation, age discrimination may lead to poverty in the future among the victims. And age discrimination is a violation of the moral principle of displaying care to the older people.

结论 商业组织代写

译文:因此,基于工会的道德推理和商业论证。我认为年龄歧视可能是道德的,也是不道德的。从小组成员的观点来看,年龄歧视是不道德的,因为老年人享有平等的精神权利。年龄歧视与年轻一代一样享有就业机会,这违反了道德原则,即对老年人的福祉给予同等的关注,并且年龄歧视会产生社会成本。但是,这些观点并未解决成本与收益之间的平衡。确实,老龄化人口可能不具备与年轻一代相同的技术技能和能力。

而且,雇用老年人并不能提供良好的培训投资回报。而且老龄化者可能有一段活跃的时期。在这种情况下,可以通过为高级雇员提供广泛的培训来平衡雇用年长雇员的成本和收益。这样他们就可以与年轻一代的技能和能力相匹配。因此,雇用老龄雇员可能不被视为一种经济策略。但是,可以通过为年长的员工提供广泛的培训来平衡成本和收益。 商业组织代写

关于年龄歧视的商业论点,我认为根据年龄区分潜在雇员是不道德的。这是因为年长的雇员可能比年轻人有更多的经验。他们还享有与年轻一代平等的就业机会的权利,年龄歧视可能导致受害者未来的贫困。年龄歧视违反了向老年人提供照顾的道德原则。

Therefore, the business argument about ageism does not balance the cost and benefits of employing the aging population.

To offset the cost and benefits of hiring the older generation, organizations can strive to have the right numbers of each subset. And avoiding discriminatory questions, such as age and when someone plans to retire when hiring. Therefore, it is unethical to discriminate against potential employees based on their age.

This assignment has changed my feelings, values, ideologies, and ethical orientation toward this issue, my citizenship, and CSR in general. Previously, I thought that CSR and corporate codes of conduct were public relations ploys to appease the relevant stakeholders. I felt that behind a disguise of social responsibility, revenues always outdid social concerns. I also thought that CSR was a big leaf that concealed the abusive treatment of workers. However, I have learned that CSR means that organizations are responsible for their social, economic, and environmental implications of what they do. They are accountable to their stakeholders, including employees.

因此,关于老年主义的商业论点不能平衡雇用老龄化人口的成本和收益。

译文:为了抵消雇用老一辈的成本和收益,组织可以努力使每个子集具有正确的数量。并避免歧视性问题,例如年龄和某人打算在招聘时退休的问题。因此,根据潜在雇员的年龄来区别他们是不道德的。 商业组织代写

这项工作改变了我对这个问题,我的公民身份和总体上的企业社会责任的感觉,价值观,意识形态和道德取向。以前,我认为企业社会责任和公司行为准则是​​安抚相关利益相关者的公共关系手段。我觉得在掩饰社会责任的背后,收入总是超过社会关注的。我还认为,企业社会责任是掩盖虐待工人待遇的大叶子。但是,我了解到,企业社会责任意味着组织应对其所做的社会,经济和环境影响负责。他们对包括员工在内的利益相关者负责。

Secondly, my views, feelings, and ethical orientation about age discrimination in the Workplace have changed.

Earlier on, I thought that age discrimination is unethical because everyone has a right to equal treatment and equal employment opportunity. However, upon doing this research, I have learned that the issue of ageism at the Workplace has rights and justice views. For instance, the trade union argues that both young. And aging people should have equal employment opportunities, and ageism can have social costs. On the other hand, businesses argue that employing the younger population can be seen as an economic strategy. Because younger people have more technical skills and capabilities, learn quickly, and can fit into the changing business environments.

I have also learned that since there are costs and benefits of employing the aging population, organizations should balance the cost and benefits of employing the aging population. I now understand that my roles in society include treating other people equally. I have learned that people should not be discriminated based on their age. I also understand that my role in society includes demonstrating corporate responsibility. Such as creating age discrimination awareness to at-risk youth or elderly. As a responsible corporate citizen, I can make a significant impact by avoiding age discrimination at the Workplace. Avoiding age discriminatory questions, and educating others about the benefits of a diverse workforce.

其次,我对工作场所中的年龄歧视的看法,感受和道德取向发生了变化。

译文:早些时候,我认为年龄歧视是不道德的,因为每个人都有平等待遇和平等就业机会的权利。但是,通过进行这项研究,我了解到工作场所的年龄歧视问题具有权利和正义的观点。例如,工会认为这两个人都年轻。老年人应该有平等的就业机会,而年龄歧视会带来社会成本。另一方面,企业认为雇用年轻人口可以被视为一种经济策略。因为年轻人具有更多的技术技能和能力,所以可以快速学习,并且可以适应不断变化的业务环境。

我还了解到,由于雇用老龄化人口有成本和收益,因此组织应该平衡雇用老龄化人口的成本和收益。我现在明白,我在社会上的角色包括平等对待他人。我了解到,不应基于年龄来区分人们。我也了解我在社会上的角色包括表现出公司责任。例如,为处于危险中的青少年或老年人建立年龄歧视意识。作为负责任的企业公民,我可以避免工作场所的年龄歧视,从而产生重大影响。避免年龄歧视性问题,并教育其他人了解多样化的劳动力所带来的好处。 商业组织代写

References

Dietz, J., & Kleinlogel, E. (2015). Employment Discrimination as Unethical Behavior. Oxford Handbooks Online. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780199363643.013.5.

Humanrights.gov.au. (2008). Corporate Social Responsibility & Human Rights | Australian Human Rights Commission. Humanrights.gov.au. Retrieved 8 May 2020, from https://humanrights.gov.au/our-work/corporate-social-responsibility-human-rights.

Knight, C. (2013). Egalitarian Justice and Expected Value. Ethical Theory and Moral Practice, 16(5), 1061-1073. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10677-013-9415-6.

McDonald, T. (2012). Older workforce faces age discrimination – ABC News. Abc.net.au. Retrieved 8 May 2020, from https://www.abc.net.au/news/2012-01-30/men-in-50s-discriminated-against-in-work-place/3800496.

Rupp, D., Vodanovich, S., & Crede, M. (2006). Age Bias in the Workplace: The Impact of Ageism and Causal Attributions. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 36(6), 1337-1364. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.0021-9029.2006.00062.x

 
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