Genetic Engineering Article Summary



Genetic Engineering Article Summary

Genetic Engineering代写 Introduction on the various concept about genetic engineering in fungi with a primary focus on filamentous fungi.

A CRISPR-Cas9 System for Genetic Engineering of Filamentous Fungi Genetic Engineering代写

The article begins with an introduction on the various concept about genetic engineering in fungi with a primary focus on filamentous fungi.

Nødvig, Nielsen, Kogle, and Mortensen (2015) acknowledge the importance and detriment of the fungi to human life. Among stated advantages is recirculation of biomass in the ecosystem where fungi release enzymes which break down biodegradable organic matters. The production of enzymes that break down organic material makes them useful in the industrial production of various types of enzymes including amylase, lipase, and others.Genetic Engineering代写**成品

However, fungi are detrimental to human life by deteriorating building and foods with enzymes which are sometimes fatal to human beings like mycotoxins. Other filamentous fungi infect humans with diseases. That notwithstanding, filamentous fungi are an essential source of medical compounds like penicillin, statins, mycophenolic acids, and antibiotics.

Nødvig, Nielsen, Kogle, and Mortensen (2015) noted Genetic Engineering代写

That despite all the beneficial impacts of fungi to humans and the knowledge of biology and biotechnology, most of these remain unknown of their application in genetic engineering due to the limitation of knowledge in their DNA and RNA altering and sequencing for medical applications. Therefore, the application of CRISPR-Cas9 System in the bacterial and archaeal immune mechanisms has become the most powerful methods in the use and application of fungi at industrial levels. The utilization of CRISPR-Cas9 System utilizes two components including Cas9 nuclease and single strand guide RNA.Genetic Engineering代写**成品

The two elements allow the DNA double stands breaks (DSB) to be introduced to the sequence for the gene targeting. For accuracy in gene targeting of sgRNA, protospacer is used with 20 nucleotides. The correspondence sequence in the synthetic oligonucleotide with that of the protospacer simplify the encoding of sgRNA using Cas9. Consequently, Cas9 is easily programmed for the target. The use of Cas9 in alteration of genes has made it easier in other mammals and organisms.

Genetic Engineering代写
Genetic Engineering代写

The second part of the article is the results. Genetic Engineering代写

The research found that the system for CRISPR-Cas9 was useful in mediating gene alteration of various fungi. The system, therefore, allowed for a wide variety of fungi to be mutagenized. It was also possible to construct a CRISPR-Cas9 vector which was used in the genetic engineering of filamentous fungi. The vectors were generated through single USER fusion cloning. The cloning was mediated by E. Coli making the CRISPR-Cas9 vector to have it as the origin of replication. Another observation made was that CRISPR-Cas9 was capable of directly introducing gene alterations into the yA gene of A. nidulans.Genetic Engineering代写**成品

The success of mutating yA gene in A. nidulans using CRISPR-Cas9 was easy to observe in both active and inactive yA genes. The research further found out that albA and pyrG in A. aculeatus are altered using CRISPR-Cas9. Besides, the research was able to establish that CRISPR-Cas9 induced DNA DSBs was usable in gene targeting in A. nidulans and A. aculeate. These findings were crucial in the field of genetic engineering of filamentous fungi.

In summary Genetic Engineering代写

Nødvig, Nielsen, Kogle, and Mortensen (2015) concluded that the CRISPR-Cas9 system and its application in genetic alteration in filamentous fungi is revolutionary for their industrial use. The system can be applied in the wide spectrum of fungi mutagenesis. Therefore, according to Nødvig, Nielsen, Kogle, and Mortensen (2015), the use of a simple and versatile fungal CRISPR-Cas9 system can introduce RNA-guided mutations to particular alleles different species.Genetic Engineering代写**成品

Also, the system makes it possible to use “RNA-guided Cas9 induced DNA DSBs” and successive of RNA-guided mutagenesis in gene targeting. Notably, the CRISPR-Cas9 system has made not only genetic engineering easier and possible in the living organism but also non-living like filamentous fungi.

Work Cited Genetic Engineering代写

Nødvig, C. S., Nielsen, J. B., Kogle, M. E., & Mortensen, U. H. (2015). A CRISPR-Cas9 system for genetic engineering of filamentous fungi. PloS one, 10(7), e0133085.

Genetic Engineering代写
Genetic Engineering代写

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