Annotated Bibliography



Brain代写 Dry Creek Elementary School is discussed in their change from a traditional teaching environment to a brain-based teaching environment.


Article 1

Caine, R., & Caine, G. (1995). Reinventing schools through brain-based learning. Educational Leadership, 52(7), 43. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Dry Creek Elementary School is discussed in their change from a traditional teaching environment to a brain-based teaching environment.  The article, on more than one occasion, connects the brain to a computer.  Examples of some of the methods that Dry Creek School uses are also explained. This is an example of how one particular school went through dramatic changes both for the success of faculty and students using brain-based learning.  Some may not agree with the idea that students should have as much time as they need to research in an area as this would not create a structured school day. Brain代写**范文

On that line of thought, many schools have created a school wide schedule to insure that students with special needs are able to be resourced at times during the day when they will miss the least amount of information.  It provides helpful examples of the school’s structure and daily life.   The article is a prime United States example to compare to other schools.  One of the authors, Renate Caine, is Associate Professor of Education and Executive Director of the Center for Research in Integrative Learning/Teaching at California State University and Geoffrey Caine is an Adjunct Professor at University of Redlands, California.

Article 2 Brain代写

Alferink, L. A., & Farmer-Dougan, V. (2010). Brain-(not) based education: Dangers of misunderstanding and misapplication of neuroscience research. Exceptionality, 18(1), 42-52. doi:10.1080/09362830903462573

Truths and misconceptions of brain-based learning are the focus of this article.   The article shows specific concern in the area of Special Education and how too many teachers believe using these strategies will work for any child.  The reader is also reminded that while there is some truth to the research, attention should still be shown in teaching children using these strategies and theories.  Four theories are discussed:  teaching using right vs. left brain instruction, early brain development in different stages of children, teaching using brain-based instruction, and teaching to multiple intelligences. Brain代写**范文

The theories in the article are well documented and although the author is somewhat biased against brain-based learning, the cautions that are presented are important ones to consider. For a researcher in this field, this article is an essential reminder of the criticisms and concerns of brain-based learning.  The author provides legitimate questions and points that would provide an excellent basis for a study in proper brain-based strategies.  The authors, Larry Alferink and Valeri Farmer-Dougan, are both from Illinois State University.

Article 3 Brain代写

Geake, J. (2008). Neuromythologies in education. Educational Research, 50(2), 123-133. doi:10.1080/00131880802082518

The article shows a completely opposing view of brain-based learning.  Several theories are highlighted and explained.  Although the author states that there is some truth to Brain-based learning, it is too often over exaggerated.  Examples of neuromyths include: we only use 10% of our brain, multiple intelligences, Brain Gym, left- and right-brained thinking, VAK (visual, auditory and kinesthetic) learning styles, and water as brain food. One-size-fits all, or a life raft, is how the author describes brain-based learning.  The author is critical of teachers that would accept a practice without documented scientific evidence that it is acceptable. Brain代写**范文

The blame or reason given why teachers might accept these new strategies is put partly on politicians who push for higher test scores.  It would be interesting to know if the author’s viewpoint has come from the classroom, of observing in the classroom, or from discussing with individuals what happens in a classroom. Many believe it helps to know areas that are weak in neuroscience, draw suspicion and, lack evidence.  The author, John Geake, is from Oxford Brookes University, United Kingdom.


Article 4 Brain代写

Gülpinar, M. (2005). The principles of brain-based learning and constructivist models in education. Educational Sciences: Theory & Practice, 5(2), 299-306. Retrieved from EBSCOhost.

Learning differences between the right and left brain hemispheres are at times disputed.  This article references studies that defend the theory and explain the process.  Brain-Based Learning and Constructivist Learning Approaches are also discussed and the author states that the research in neuroscience should drive the assessments used in a brain-based classroom. Three important factors for the best learning experience are: the overall climate of the classroom, real-life learning experiences, and a sensory approach to learning. Brain代写**范文

The language of the article is neither too basic nor too scientific.  The documents referenced are well known and also provided is a 12 step process to assessing brain-based learning. The author is not biased or persuasive but does provide facts for further research. Overall, this article would be helpful in research for possible ways to assess brain-based learning. The areas of brain-based learning that are described are ones that are typically known by many professionals in education.  The author, Mehmet Gulpinar, MD, is from Marmara University, School of Medicine, Istanbul, Turkey.

Article 5 Brain代写

Purdy, N., & Morrison, H. (2009). Cognitive neuroscience and education: Unraveling the confusion. Oxford Review of Education, 35(1), 99-109. doi:10.1080/03054980802404741

This article reviewed the debate about Brain-Based Learning and Neuroscience and how it is being used in the classroom.  They are concerned with the myths in recent research.  The authors suggest a need for more legitimate data surveys to provide more communication between classroom teachers and researchers using Brain-based learning techniques in the classroom.  The methodology used was predominately qualitative data. Brain代写**范文

The authors stated to that we cannot connect psychological attributes to the brain.  For example it was said that the brain doesn’t feel pain but it is the person that feels pain. Agreeably, the concern is that there is no current test to determine true learning achieved through Brain-Based learning techniques.  As an article, it provided questions to consider for a researcher in this field.   There are a number of current neuroscientists and opponents that are cited in this program that prove valuable to this field of research.  It talks about the future teacher being a neuroscientist.  It is a very interesting concept but what would a degree in education and neuroscience require. Brain代写**范文

 Would teachers then receive more money and planning time to perform the necessary neuroscientific tests for assessment?  The authors encourage the teacher to be the professional and observe what the student is seeing, however, this can be very subjective. One of the authors, Noel Purdy is from Stranmillis University College, Belfast and the other author, Hugh Morrison, is from Queen’s University, Belfast.  Their interest stemmed from the current curriculum reform in Northern Ireland.

Article 6 Brain代写

Rushton, S., Juola-Rushton, A., & Larkin, E. (2010). Neuroscience, play and early childhood education: Connections, implications and assessment. Early Childhood Education Journal, 37(5), 351-361. doi:10.1007/s10643-009-0359-3

Using at times an entertaining narrative form, the article describes how learning stimulates neurotransmitters.  The neuroscientific vocabulary is similar to other neuroscientist’s work and is clear and to the point.  The main focus of the article is how to stimulate elementary children in the classroom so that brain activity is at the highest possible.  A discussion on assessment tools for a Brain-based learning classroom is also included.  The article is very informative and contains entertaining dialogues, as well as, providing good definitions of neuroscience vocabulary. Brain代写**范文

It is a very easy read for a busy elementary teacher that would be overwhelmed if they didn’t have a knowledge of neuroscience.  Sources provide excellent global coverage. An enjoyable mental picture of the author’s idea of a brain-based classroom is provided.  It was easy to see how such a classroom would stimulate students in their learning environment.  This could easily provide an example of a brain-based classroom for a teacher professional learning day. Stephen Rushton, one of the authors, is from the University of South Florida and A. Juola-Rushton is a teacher at Wakeland Elementary School, Bradenton, Florida.

Article 7 Brain代写

Schrag, F. (2011). Does neuroscience matter for education?. Educational Theory, 61(2), 221-237. doi:10.1111/j.1741-5446.2011.00401.x

The predominate thought of the paper is that neuroscience is more likely to affect the learning than the teaching in a classroom.  This is a review of two anthologies: The Jossey-Bass Reader on the Brain and Learning and New Philosophies of Learning.  There are three main parts: the review of the articles, philosopher’s viewpoints in this field, the author’s solution. He does not believe that neuroscience will help in the classroom.  The idea mentioned in the first sentence above about how neuroscience will affect the classroom is interesting and a different approach than many. Brain代写**范文

Those against brain-based learning say that it is not the brain that learns and many of those for brain-based learning will state that the brain is how we learn.  The author was stating that the brain is what helps the person learn. The references were broad; everything from Descartes to more modern neuroscientists and philosophers.  I found this to actually be an exciting read that draws the reader in, whether they agree with the topic or not.  From a research standpoint his message was saying, although there is little scientific evidence; someone’s got to try it to see if it works. Francis Schrag is in the Department of Educational Policy Studies at the University of Wisconsin.


Article 8 Brain代写

Tommerdahl, J. (2010). A model for bridging the gap between neuroscience and education. Oxford Review of Education, 36(1), 97-109. doi:10.1080/03054980903518936

In the fields of neuroscience and education there are distinct differences in vocabulary as mentioned by Tommerdahl.  Discussed are five different levels: neuroscience, cognitive neuroscience, psychological mechanisms, educational theory, and finally the classroom.  The suggestion is that these levels are not linear in that they go from top to bottom but instead that they must transfer information continually up and down to be successful.  This is more of a comparison/contrast article that looks at both sides of the coin.  It recommends caution when using brain-based approaches and notes that there is still a large communication gap from neuroscientists to educators. Brain代写**范文

There is a great restaurant analogy that describes the neuroscientists as the raw foods distributors and the educators as the cooks, experimenting with the ingredients. An excellent point that the author made is that brain-based methodologies are not supposed to be the only one used but instead they should be used in conjunction with more prominent methodologies.  The author shows great knowledge in the field and would be a great resource to use for further information. Jodi Thommerdahl, the author is affiliated with the University of Birmingham, United Kingdom and University of Texas, United States of America.

Article 9 Brain代写

Wasserman, L. (2007). The correlation between brain development, language acquisition, and cognition. Early Childhood Education Journal, 34(6), 415-418. doi:10.1007/s10643-007-0155-x

The brain is noted to have been studied since 1700 B.C., by the Egyptians.  The language center of the brain is the first part discussed. It was noted that someone with normal range language skills has a lopsided brain, since the right side of the brain is growing faster as the language components are learned. Someone with deficits in language acquisition will have a brain with equal sides because they are not learning or retaining information.  A critical time for maximum learning is the second point mentioned and the third is information for educators. Brain代写**范文

The information presented is told so that educators will have more of time frame for when information should be presented.  It does not mean that a child cannot learn before or after those time frames.  The scientific vocabulary, although greater than most educators would feel comfortable with, was well explained and equipment was clearly defined.  Analogies are very when learning and this article provided a number of great examples.  Leslie Wasserman, the author is with the University of Akron, Ohio.

Article 10 Brain代写

Zull, J. E. (2006). Key aspects of how the brain learns. New Directions for Adult & Continuing Education, (110), 3-9. doi:10.1002/ace.213

This concise article provides basic information about brain parts and functions for educators.  Sensory data is discussed and what is happening to the brain as it takes in this new information.   The last page provides notes specifically for the educator on the theories presented and reiterates that they are just theories that may change as universal knowledge about the brain grows.  If an educator has studied some strategies of brain based learning but is interested in why they work this will be beneficial.  The word bauplan is mentioned but is never truly defined.   For an educator, understanding which part of the brain that you are trying to reach with any particular assignment would be helpful while planning a lesson. Brain代写**范文

This article provides a start to research in brain-based learning. The information didn’t seem crammed in but instead broken down into digestible sections.  The article would be helpful for an educator with little knowledge in the area of brain function.  The clear and even at times visual description of the learning process the brain goes through was helpful to create mental pictures.  This would be a source that could be used for further reference. James Zull is a professor of biology at Case Western Reserve University.  He is also the founding director for the University Center of Innovation in Teaching and Education at Case Western.


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