心理学代写 Critical Analysis Essay



Critical Analysis Essay

Substance Use Addiction Disorder

心理学代写 In the understanding about the substance use and addiction disorder, psychoanalytic perspective will be used.

Psychoanalysis Perspective 心理学代写

In the understanding about the substance use and addiction disorder, psychoanalytic perspective will be used. Psychoanalytic perspective is associated with a psychologist Sigmund Freud. Being a psychological theory, it is revolving on the treatment and unconsciousness of mind and how individual experiences shape consciousness and thinking. The psychoanalytic model deals with the consciousness and unconscious motive and desires of an individual.

Substance use is considered a product of abnormal personality structure. According to Freud (1912), the three major components form the human personality which are the id, ego, and the superego. The Id is inborn in every child and it unrestrained, primitive, and seek pressure. Ego is developed in life through realities and mostly restrain the id. On the other hand, the superego is shaped by the relationships we create with parents and other people. The three personality components exist simultaneously and complement each other. If one personality becomes dominant than the others, the individual develops abnormal behavior.

In this regard, Freud aimed at strengthening the ego by developing psychoanalysts.

In so doing the ego is given more control over the id thus it becomes independent from the superego. According to Freud, mental disorder is developed when there is unrestrained feeling. He argues that anxiety is built when desires from the id emerge in the form of thought or action. As such, the anxiety signal ego which causes repression and defensiveness in a bid to disguise id desires.

There exist a gap in the intensity of anxiety experienced by a person variable on the external demands and the self-control. Inability to handle traumas in life may lead the victim to be helpless and powerless. Due to the inability to cope with the negativities around, a person can develop a defensive mechanism to keep off the negative feelings. In this reaction, the person tries to manage the anxiety as well as uphold self-image. For instance, in the case of substance addict may insist of having no problem of addiction. As a result of trying to fight anxiety through unconsciousness, the person develops false self-image. 心理学代写

It is argued that addiction is used as a form of defensive strategy for helplessness and powerlessness. In essence, substance use is a futile attempt to compensate internal void feeling which ends up in failure. The substance use is a way of compensating for subjective low self-esteem and anxiety. The state of addiction gives a person a false feeling of acceptance and temporary self-importance. In the state of addiction, a person feels in control of the world which has made him useless and powerless.

Therefore, the addict end using substances to regain the feeling of relief and control of the otherwise oppressive world. Doing this on and on the make, the user makes it the way of life. Consequently, the user fails to understand their distress as well as self-soothing destructive emotion.


在对物质使用和成瘾症的理解中,将使用心理分析的观点。心理分析的观点与心理学家西格蒙德·弗洛伊德(Sigmund Freud)有关。作为一种心理学理论,它围绕着对心理的治疗和无意识以及个人体验如何塑造意识和思维。心理分析模型处理个体的意识,无意识动机和欲望。







Substance Disorders 心理学代写


Alcohol and Drug Use Disorder

According to American Psychiatric Association (2013) through Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders version five, the substance use and related disorders are associated with different classes of drugs including alcohol, cannabis, inhalants, stimulants, and much more. For illustration, this paper will use a fictional character (Mr. M) who has developed an alcohol use disorder. In support of his disorder DSM -5 will be used as a reference for diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment. 心理学代写

Generally, substance use is associated with cognitive, behavioral and psychological symptoms. Mr. M developed the habit of alcohol use since the time he was a teenager. Later in life, he started using unknown drugs for injection. Although many are times he has been told of his alcoholism and drug use, he has never acknowledged and always protesting, until recently his wife took him to a psychiatrist to see if his condition can be helped. The psychiatrist developed Mr. M diagnosis and prognosis as follows.

Following are the characteristics and symptoms used to inform the alcoholism and drug use by Mr. M.

i.Increase in his aggression and annoyance

ii.His personality changes erratically

iii.Have depressed 心理学代写

iv.Loss of interpersonal level

v.Changed her priorities in life, like dropped out of school

vi.Excessive alcohol intact and craving for more


viii.Irrational thinking and decision making



Others physical changes according to Aggarwal et al. (2015), which might be observable on his include bloodshot, dilated the pupil, changes in body weight, and sleeping disorder.

Prognosis 心理学代写

Mr. M used alcohol and other drugs to reduce the amount of stress or to forget the challenges in her life. She uses it as a psychosis mechanism for self-denial. He wants to feel delusional from her problems and reality.

Differential Diagnosis 

Furthermore, Mr. M had various symptoms which could be diagnosed resulting to different psychiatrist illnesses. However, although these disorders may be sharing symptoms and characteristics, to arrive at appropriate prognosis and medication, some must be eliminated as a differential diagnosis. Therefore, after an assessment of his condition the following differential diagnosis were ruled out:

i.Nonpathological use of alcohol 心理学代写


Treatment 心理学代写

In psychoanalysis perspective, substance addiction is a disorder of self-regulation (Khantzian, 2014). For example, a person who has exposure to violence and abuse during childhood is more inclined to low capacity to regulate negative emotions as well as the inability to with anxiety thus resorting to self-medicating anxiety and mood disorder. However, notably, the distinctive nature of this substance use disorder is that many experiments with them but few get addicted. Additionally, the psychoanalytic model also approaches the process of healing to those in addiction through engagement of self-reflection and offering of emotion management alternatives.


根据美国精神病学协会(2013)通过《精神疾病诊断和统计手册》第五版,该物质的使用和相关疾病与不同类别的药物有关,包括酒精,大麻,吸入剂,兴奋剂等。为了说明这一点,本文将使用一个虚构的人物(Mr. M)来发展酒精使用障碍。为了支持他的疾病,DSM -5将被用作诊断,预后和治疗的参考。心理学代写

通常,物质使用与认知,行为和心理症状有关。 M先生自十几岁起就养成酗酒的习惯。后来,他开始使用未知药物进行注射。尽管很多时候他被告知酗酒和吸毒,但他从未承认并一直在抗议,直到最近他的妻子将他带到精神病医生那里看他的病情是否可以得到帮助。心理医生对M先生的诊断和预后如下。












根据Aggarwal等人的其他物理变化。 (2015年),在他身上可以观察到的包括血丝,瞳孔散大,体重变化和睡眠障碍。










American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Arlington, Va.

Aggarwal, A., Vaish, S., Sharma, D., Sushil, C., Usman, N., & Sudarsanan, S. (2015). A study of personality profile and criminal behavior in substance abusers. Industrial Psychiatry Journal, 24(1), 35-39. doi:http://dx.doi.org/10.4103/0972-6748.160960

Freud, S. (1912). The dynamics of transference. Classics in psychoanalytic techniques.

Khantzian, E. (2014). Psychodynamic Psychotherapy for the Treatment of Substance Use Disorders. Textbook Of Addiction Treatment: International Perspectives, 811-819. doi: 10.1007/978-88-470-5322-9_38