Development Analysis: Childhood and Adolescence

心理学Analysis代写 Childhood and adolescence are perhaps the most important phases of human metamorphosis because of the very critical changes they encapsulate.


Childhood and adolescence are perhaps the most important phases of human metamorphosis because of the very critical changes they encapsulate. In childhood, most children exude the growth progression they had at infancy. It is also the time the family dynamics, support structures and meaningful occurrence play critical roles in shaping physical development, cognitive development, language development, spiritual/moral development et cetera. Childhood sets forth exciting and vital paragon or foundation for a child to ultimately become an adult. For instance, most children begin their kindergarten at the age of five thus, leaving their parents’ home to experience a new environment with new structures that further helps in shaping all faculties of their development including their social lives (Putra et al., 2020). Likewise in the adolescence stage; however, at this stage much of the changes happen in the mind, body and social lives. At adolescence for example, pubic hairs starts to grow with much physical changes happening to an individual. This defines and shapes even their relationships with the parents, teachers and even the environment. I went through the same process of metamorphosis with my life being defined momentarily by some very particular aspects like poverty, trauma and conflict in my childhood.

Theoretical Perspectives of Development 心理学Analysis代写

Stage of Development According to Freud

Freud perspective is that personality development in childhood happens during five psychosexual phases classified as the oral, anal, phallic, latency and genital stages (Putra et al., 2020). The oral stage helps in EGO development and child uses its mouth to suck and swallow food because the child’s libido is centered in the mouth, while anal, phallic, latent and genital stages are responsible for the development of SUPEREGO (Freud, 2021). During the SUPEREGO development, libido’s position shift focus momentarily from the anus, the genitalia, and moves to a latent stage where it becomes dormant due to lack any further psychosexual development (Putra et al., 2020). At the genital stage, is when an individual reaches adolescence and becomes enthusiastic and curious of experimenting their sexual urges (Freud, 2021).

Yes, it is true that some of these stages have captured both my childhood and adolescence stages. For example, being a child the life at infant was just about sucking and swallowing while during my adolescent stages my sexual urges grew so tremendously with the only possible approach is to try and experiment such changes (Putra et al., 2020).

So to be very clear on this, the possible parallels I have to draw from Freud’s psychosexual stages are perhaps the oral stage at childhood and the genital stage at adolescence. At my adolescence I have the memories quite clear, but at my childhood, my mother helps me to identify the oral stage and emphasizes my weird libido in the mouth when it came to sucking and swallowing milk (Putra et al., 2020).

Stage of Development According to Erikson

Being an ego psychologist, Erikson had drawn some of insights from Sigmoid Freud’s propositions. However, instead of focusing on psychosexual, his theory focused on psychosocial developments envisaged by humans based on the following eight stages; Trust vs. Mistrust, Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt, Initiative vs. Guilt, Industry vs. Inferiority, Identity vs. confusion, Intimacy vs. Isolation, Generativity vs. Stagnation and Integrity vs. Despair. Taking a closer look at these theoretical propositions by Erikson and pitting them against my childhood and adolescence development, I must admit that some of them have been my embodiment during the two phases (Syed & McLean, 2017). In my childhood parse, embodied autonomy vs. shame and doubt, initiative vs. guilt, industry vs. inferiority whereas the adolescence stage I exuded identity vs. role confusion.

For example, as a child I think my parents and teachers had allowed me make some choices and gain control of my environment as part of the development. Developing this sense of autonomy help me grasp some critical physical skills and of which when I failed I could feel the sense of shame and doubt. And I suppose until now, this has been my point of strength and weakness at the same time (Hawes et al., 2018). I love being independent and I love exploring and curving my own niche to gain control of my own independent being; however, every time I experience any failure in life, am always reduced into shame and doubt. Another, observation of psychosocial element I noticed strongly in my adolescence is the development of ego identity. As young teenager, I loved to explore my autonomy and establish a sense of self because I always wanted to have this strong feeling of independence and control (Syed & McLean, 2017).

Stage of Development According to Piaget 心理学Analysis代写

Jean Piaget perspective on cognitive development suggest that a child develops through four stages of sensorimotor between birth and 2 years, preoperational stage from 2-7 years, concrete operational stage between 7-11 years, and finally the formal operational stage from age 12 to adulthood (Babakr et al., 2019). Because cognitive development are those changes that defines the cognitive process and abilities, I think Paget’s suppositions highlights all the development have ensued since my childhood up to now cognitive wise. Because, my childhood involved most of the time, processes defined by actions and this continually changed overtime into my adolescence to a process based on mental operation. However, some of the domineering stages in these Piaget’s collection I have to note are my preoperational stage and the operational stage (Babakr et al., 2019). At the former, I become much more skilled at pretending, playing and continuously and consciousness held concrete thoughts about by environment. For the latter stage, I began to understand my thoughts and could share my feelings and opinions with the people and the world around me.


Nature versus Nurture

I can think of nature as much of the physical world which is largely influenced by genetic inheritance and other areas of biology. However, nurture is generally the influence of external variables after a life is conceived. These might include but not limited to the following; the product of exposure, experiences in life, and the learning of a person. So in my case nature and nurture both have played critical roles in my childhood and adolescence. The way I act and relate with my parents during my childhood was strongly intertwined. The feelings of telepathy clearly suggested to me that there is some element of nature combining us- the genetic and other biological flows really anticipated my relationship with my parents and the environment around me to larger extend. Even in adolescence the feeling remained mutually the same.

Similarly, I gaze being brought up in a low class family, my response to parenting were determined by various factors. I could always seek for love, and the where the feelings of happiness are showed but move away from such issues that results into pain. I think this concept of nature and nurture has helped in my adolescence to understand how things run in our family. It has helped me to must all the behavioral aspects and patterns and influences of the family.

Bowlby’s Attachment

Fundamentally, attachment theory focuses on the primary caregivers who are available and responsive to the child’s needs and in essence, this develops a sense of security. The infant or the child is encouraged by the dependable nature of the caregiver thus, creating a secure base for the child to be able to explore the world. In my early childhood, this attachment theme was highly enhanced by my mother who would respond to my needs very sensitively and thereby making me to develop the secure attachments with her. Even today as a young adult, that attachment still persists (Stroebe, 2019). To me attachment is like the bond that united me with my parents. It helped me during my adolescence through sharing my intimate feelings with my parents because of the sensitive bond that sprouted between us since my childhood. It helped me to deal with anxiety and respond to strange behaviors during my adolescence. Also, I was able to understand and appreciate the meaning of this attachment the family and beyond and learn how to extend it across my environment.

Faith Development 心理学Analysis代写

Fowler’s Stages of Faith and Identity are seven running through stage 0 to stage 6. At stage 0 he talks about Primal Undifferentiated Faith that is experienced between birth and 2 years, stage 1 he talks about Intuitive-Projective Faith which is experienced at age 3-7. The next stages are;  Mythic-Literal Faith (Ages 7-12); “Synthetic-Conventional” Faith  (Ages 12 to Adult); ”Individuative-Reflective Faith” (Ages Mid-Twenties to Late Thirties); “Conjunctive” Faith (Mid-Life Crisis) and finally the ”Universalizing” Faith (or ”Enlightenment”).  (Later Adulthood) (Mayer, 2017).  I think the most important ones in the childhood and adolescence development run from stage zero to three. As such in my case and based in my history of moral and spiritual upbringing, I have experienced faith development from stage one to stage three. This is because, it is the time I believed I had acquired language and developed ability to express my thoughts up until I began to grasp deeper concept of belief system, authority, and gained strength for personal religious and spiritual identity.

Challenges and Success

To me some of the successes in my childhood and adolescence development can be categorized as psychological, and social. Much of my childhood development, I was very successful in learning fast within my environment, developing bonds with the people close to me like parents teachers, siblings and other children. This has helped me to development in various fronts like cognitive development, moral and social developments and even behavioral developments. The various challenges I have faced during my developmental stages mostly were informed by the structure and economic perspectives. I have been raised in a low class family with little opportunities and shrinking life experiences. It has been fundamentally survival; this to some extent traumatized me, and hurled a lot of anxious moments for me. Such had direct impact on my psychological wellbeing and even social development as child and as adolescence. The parentage care I received only taught me how to survive particularly in hardships but not how to navigate through life to reach the top. Such are things I have to cope-up with today to thrive in life.


References 心理学Analysis代写

Babakr, Z. H., Mohamedamin, P., & Kakamad, K. (2019). Piaget’s Cognitive Developmental Theory: Critical Review. Education Quarterly Reviews2(3), 517-524.

Freud, S. (2021). Three essays on the theory of sexuality. eBookIt. com.

Hawes, S. W., Byrd, A. L., Gonzalez, R., Cavanagh, C., Bechtold, J., Lynam, D. R., & Pardini, D. A. (2018). The developmental course of psychopathic features: Investigating stability, change, and long-term outcomes. Journal of research in personality77, 83-89.

Mayer, C. H. (2017). Stages of Faith Development. In The Life and Creative Works of Paulo Coelho (pp. 119-142). Springer, Cham.

Putra, I. G. N. E., Astell-Burt, T., Cliff, D. P., Vella, S. A., & Feng, X. (2020). Association between green space quality and prosocial behaviour: A 10-year multilevel longitudinal analysis of Australian children. Environmental Research, 110334.

Stroebe, M. (2019). The Study of Security and Separation: An Unexpected Forerunner of Attachment Theory?. OMEGA-Journal of Death and Dying, 0030222819880706.

Syed, M., & McLean, K. C. (2017). Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development.