NCUK IFYEC002 Economics 2019-2020

NCUK IFYEC002 经济学 2019-2020

棕榈油行业代写 The palm oil industry is booming in the world, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia, which are the leading producers.

Economic Perspectives on Government Intervention in Palm Oil Industry

The palm oil industry is booming in the world, particularly in Indonesia and Malaysia, which are the leading producers. The palm oil sector provides income and employment to large population poor countries (German et al., 2010). A study by the Australian National University found that a positive correlation between palm oil industry development and growth in income and living standards of the local communities where palm farms and mills are located (Barlow, Zen, & Gondowarsito, 2003). Another study at Sumatra found that these farms require high labor and show high labor returns (Tomich at al., 2001).

However, the palm oil industry has become a contentious issue in policymaking, especially on sustainable agriculture due to its environment and social detriments. The controversy is how to create a balance between the economic benefits of palm oil growth and its negative environmental and social impacts, including deforestation, loss of biodiversity, social conflicts, among others.

政府干预棕榈油行业的经济前景 棕榈油行业代写

译文:棕榈油行业在世界范围内蓬勃发展,特别是在印度尼西亚和马来西亚,它们是主要生产国。棕榈油部门为人口众多的贫困国家提供收入和就业(German 等,2010)。澳大利亚国立大学的一项研究发现,棕榈油产业的发展与棕榈农场和工厂所在的当地社区的收入和生活水平的增长呈正相关(Barlow、Zen 和 Gondowarsito,2003 年)。苏门答腊的另一项研究发现,这些农场需要大量劳动力并显示出高劳动力回报(Tomich 等人,2001 年)。 棕榈油行业代写

然而,棕榈油行业已成为政策制定中的一个有争议的问题,尤其是在可持续农业方面,由于其对环境和社会的危害。争议在于如何在棕榈油增长的经济效益与其负面环境和社会影响(包括森林砍伐、生物多样性丧失、社会冲突等)之间取得平衡。

Positive externalities

The large farms and mills have a considerable impact on the economic activities that influence the development of land surrounding the farms. The plantations attract the development of infrastructures such as roads and other amenities that stimulate the growth of the local economy when workers spend their income and companies spend on expenses (Budidarsono, Susanti, and Zoomers, 2013, p. 173). These families also engage in economic diversification, for instance, through subsistence farming to cash production. Cash-cropping is fundamental to the separation of households’ consumption and production roles. It then tends to transform the family and communal pattern of dependencies by making productive enterprise productive. Other positive impacts include the growth of trade and services.

Similarly, a study in Rau province revealed that large plantations contribute significantly to the growth of local economies (Syahza, 2004). Syahza found that the marginal propensity to consume by the domestic workers is 0.84. More than 84 percent of income is spent locally. Seventy percent of the local expenditure (LE) becomes the local income. Thus, the income multiplier effect is 2.47 (1 / (1 – (MPCL * LE)), which shows that 1 million change in autonomous income results to 2.47 million. The increase in income from the expenditures made is a result of the multiplier effect.

Overall, the palm oil industry has elevated many people from poverty in Indonesia and Malaysia. It accounts for more than 16 percent of the Indonesian GDP and has created more than 4.5 million jobs (Budidarsono, Susanti, and Zoomers, 2013, p. 175). A significant amount of production is exported and makes more than $18 million of foreign exchange per year.

正外部性 棕榈油行业代写

译文:大型农场和工厂对影响农场周围土地开发的经济活动具有相当大的影响。种植园吸引了道路和其他便利设施等基础设施的发展,当工人花费收入而公司花费在支出上时,这些基础设施会刺激当地经济的增长(Budidarsono、Susanti 和 Zoomers,2013 年,第 173 页)。这些家庭还从事经济多样化,例如通过自给农业到现金生产。经济作物是家庭消费和生产角色分离的基础。然后,它倾向于通过使生产性企业具有生产力来改变家庭和公共依赖模式。其他积极影响包括贸易和服务的增长。 棕榈油行业代写

同样,劳省的一项研究表明,大型种植园对当地经济的增长做出了重大贡献(Syahza,2004 年)。 Syahza 发现,家政工人的边际消费倾向为 0.84。超过 84% 的收入在当地花费。当地支出(LE)的百分之七十成为当地收入。因此,收入乘数效应为 2.47 (1 / (1 – (MPCL * LE)),这表明自治收入的 100 万变化导致 247 万。支出的收入增加是乘数效应的结果.

总体而言,棕榈油行业使印度尼西亚和马来西亚的许多人摆脱了贫困。它占印度尼西亚 GDP 的 16% 以上,创造了超过 450 万个工作岗位(Budidarsono、Susanti 和 Zoomers,2013 年,第 175 页)。大量产品出口,每年赚取超过 1800 万美元的外汇。

Negative externalities

Oil palm development in Malaysia and Indonesia have led to numerous concerns about social and environmental concerns. It is linked to the vast destruction of precious indigenous forests. More than 60 percent of oil palm expansion between the 1970s to 2005 in Indonesia involves the conversion of forest to plantation (Budidarsono, Susanti, and Zoomers, 2013, p. 174). Similarly, plantations and smallholders expand their farms to meet palm oil demand. They resulted in massive deforestation, especially in Indonesia and Malaysia. As a result of converting peatlands, greenhouse emissions have increased significantly in these countries.

Also, the conversion has led to the loss of biodiversity and threat to species survival. The most affected animal species are the orangutan, whose main habitats are the rainforests. There were about 215,000 orangutans in the 1990s, but their number has been on a decline, with only less than 50,000 remaining in the wild with minimal chances of survival (GreenPalm Organization, 2016). Forests and orangutans are facing extinction because of deforestation.

Additionally, the conversion of forests has initiated social problems beside plantations creating. Some of the emerging issues include conflicts of land ownership and restrictions in the access of land resources by indigenous communities. These conflicts have led to income loss and increase dependencies on large farms and hence impacting on public welfare. These problems exist despite the oil palm industry contributing significantly to poverty eradication and economic growth.

负外部性

译文:马来西亚和印度尼西亚的油棕开发引发了许多对社会和环境问题的担忧。它与珍贵的土著森林遭到大规模破坏有关。印度尼西亚 1970 年代至 2005 年间超过 60% 的油棕扩张涉及将森林转变为种植园(Budidarsono、Susanti 和 Zoomers,2013 年,第 174 页)。同样,种植园和小农扩大农场以满足棕榈油需求。它们导致了大规模的森林砍伐,特别是在印度尼西亚和马来西亚。由于泥炭地转化,这些国家的温室气体排放量显着增加。

此外,这种转变导致了生物多样性的丧失和物种生存的威胁。受影响最严重的动物物种是猩猩,其主要栖息地是热带雨林。 1990 年代大约有 215,000 只猩猩,但它们的数量一直在下降,只有不到 50,000 只留在野外,生存机会很小(GreenPalm Organization,2016)。由于森林砍伐,森林和猩猩正面临灭绝。 棕榈油行业代写

此外,森林的转化引发了种植园之外的社会问题。一些新出现的问题包括土地所有权冲突和土著社区获取土地资源的限制。这些冲突导致收入损失和对大型农场的依赖增加,从而影响公共福利。尽管油棕业对消除贫困和经济增长做出了重大贡献,但这些问题仍然存在。

Government interventions

The palm oil demand is on increasing trend as the population grows, and many uses of the oil emerge. The consumption of foodstuffs, cosmetics, and biofuel made from palm oil has increased over time. The industry is enormous and contributes highly to the economies of such countries as Indonesia and Malaysia. Figure 1 below shows the trend for palm oil growth over the year. Palm oil demand is predicted to rise in the future due to emerging markets (Andoko & Zmudczynska, 2019). The market, especially the making biofuel, is driving the palm oil market at 4 percent (Purnomo et al., 2017). The demand is contributed to the slow demand for other vegetable oils and high expenditure on foods.

However, as the demand for palm oil increase, so is the environmental and social concerns associated with palm tree farming. Regarding figure 2 below, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Paraguay are the leading in deforestation. The large plantations in these countries are mostly converted from forests to satisfy the growing global palm oil demand. Another statistic in figure 3 shows that Malaysia has since 2006 lost more than 158,000 hectares of forest to plantation conversion (Butler, 2013).

These have led to the loss of biodiversity, habitats for some animal species, and created social conflicts. Social conflicts include poor working conditions, reduced payments, lack of local engagement and consultation, and land grabbing by a large corporation (Moreno-Peñaranda, Gasparatos, Stromberg, Suwa, & De Oliveira, 2018). The governments where the production of palm oil exists on a large scale are intervening to make the industry sustainable by balancing the economic benefits with environmental concerns.

政府干预 棕榈油行业代写

译文:随着人口的增长,棕榈油的需求呈增加趋势,并且出现了许多油的用途。由棕榈油制成的食品、化妆品和生物燃料的消费量随着时间的推移而增加。该行业规模巨大,对印度尼西亚和马来西亚等国家的经济做出了巨大贡献。下面的图 1 显示了棕榈油全年的增长趋势。由于新兴市场,棕榈油需求预计将在未来上升(Andoko 和 Zmudczynska,2019 年)。市场,尤其是制造生物燃料,推动棕榈油市场增长 4%(Purnomo 等,2017)。这种需求是导致对其他植物油的需求缓慢和食品支出高的原因。

然而,随着对棕榈油需求的增加,与棕榈树种植相关的环境和社会问题也在增加。关于下面的图 2,印度尼西亚、马来西亚和巴拉圭在森林砍伐方面处于领先地位。这些国家的大型种植园大多由森林改造而成,以满足不断增长的全球棕榈油需求。图 3 中的另一项统计数据显示,自 2006 年以来,马来西亚损失了超过 158,000 公顷的森林转为种植园(巴特勒,2013 年)。

这些导致生物多样性和某些动物物种栖息地的丧失,并造成社会冲突。社会冲突包括恶劣的工作条件、减少的付款、缺乏当地参与和咨询以及大公司掠夺土地(Moreno-Peñaranda、Gasparatos、Stromberg、Suwa 和 De Oliveira,2018 年)。大规模生产棕榈油的政府正在干预,通过平衡经济效益和环境问题来使该行业可持续发展。 棕榈油行业代写

Figure 1: Total Palm Oil Production

Source: Andoko and Zmudczynska (2019)

Figure 2: Forest cover loss due to deforestation

Source: Butler (2013)

Figure 3: Land use change in Malaysia since 2001

Source: Butler (2013)

Therefore, a case of Indonesia sustainable palm oil program is considered for this discussion.

The government for Indonesia began the Indonesian Sustainable Palm Oil (ISPO) program to provide certification to all large oil palm growers (Environmental Investigation Agency, 2018). The platform aims at creating a sustainable palm oil industry by equalizing the production standards. The establishment of the Indonesian Palm Oil Association seeks to unify the oil palm industry strategy and regulations to realize a sustainable palm oil farming that supports the welfare of the people and the environment. The government also has initiated private sector involvement in policymaking. The private sector in palm oil farming constitutes 52 percent.

The participation involves the signing of a moratorium on environmental protection and sustainability of their production and processing of oil palm. The government is also participating in the sector by providing training, technologies, and finance to smallholders so that they can improve productivity and profitability.

However, it has not been easy to achieve sustainable palm oil farming because the government lacks commitment and less engagement of smallholders (Johnson, 2015). The zero-deforestation commitment principle by some firms has not been made into law so that all the significant growers can subscribe to it. There are few firms in the Indonesian Palm Oil Pledge that is committed to lobbying for environmental policies. There are also issues of corruption allegation to the government on land allocation and failing to enforce the law that has encouraged opaque firms that engage in illegal deforestation.

因此,本次讨论考虑了印度尼西亚可持续棕榈油计划的案例。

译文:印度尼西亚政府启动了印度尼西亚可持续棕榈油 (ISPO) 计划,为所有大型油棕种植者提供认证(环境调查局,2018 年)。该平台旨在通过均衡生产标准来创建可持续的棕榈油行业。印度尼西亚棕榈油协会的成立旨在统一油棕产业战略和法规,以实现可持续的棕榈油种植,支持人民和环境的福利。政府还开始让私营部门参与决策。棕榈油种植的私营部门占 52%。

参与包括签署暂停其生产和加工油棕的环境保护和可持续性。政府还通过向小农提供培训、技术和资金来参与该部门,以便他们提高生产力和盈利能力。 棕榈油行业代写

然而,实现可持续棕榈油种植并非易事,因为政府缺乏承诺,小农参与度较低(Johnson,2015)。一些公司的零毁林承诺原则尚未成为法律,以便所有重要的种植者都可以签署。在印度尼西亚棕榈油承诺中,很少有公司致力于游说环境政策。还存在向政府提出的关于土地分配的腐败指控以及未能执行鼓励从事非法砍伐森林的不透明公司的法律的问题。

These, among other issues, need to be addressed to achieve a sustainable palm oil industry.

Nonetheless, the oil palm industry supports many economies, reduces poverty, and supports other markets such as the food industry. Although vegetable oil can be considered as a substitute to palm oil, these sources are not versatile and productive. Also, palm oil has become a key ingredient in the food industry because of affordability and availability. Indonesia and Malaysia mainly depend on palm oil export. Ending palm oil farming is not an option because it may end up in global market failure, especially on foods. Considering the cost-benefit analysis above, it is evident that the only option governments have is creating a sustainable oil palm industry. The benefits of global economic growth outweigh costs because the use of government interventions can control the costs.

这些以及其他问题需要解决,以实现可持续的棕榈油行业。 棕榈油行业代写

译文:尽管如此,油棕产业支持许多经济体,减少贫困,并支持食品行业等其他市场。 尽管植物油可以被视为棕榈油的替代品,但这些来源的用途和生产力并不多。 此外,棕榈油由于价格低廉且易于获得,已成为食品行业的关键成分。 印度尼西亚和马来西亚主要依赖棕榈油出口。 结束棕榈油种植不是一种选择,因为它可能最终导致全球市场失灵,尤其是在食品方面。 考虑到上述成本效益分析,很明显,政府唯一的选择是创建可持续的油棕产业。 全球经济增长的收益大于成本,因为使用政府干预可以控制成本。

References

Andoko, E. & Zmudczynska, E., 2019. Asia-Pacific Information Platform on Agricultural Policy-An Analysis of the Palm Industry’s Development, Regulations, and Practices in Indonesia. FFTC Agricultural Policy Platform. Retrieved from http://ap.fftc.agnet.org/ap_db.php?id=996

Butler, R. A., 2013. Malaysia has the world’s highest deforestation rate, reveals Google forest map. Mongabay. Retrieved from https://news.mongabay.com/2013/11/malaysia-has-the-worlds-highest-deforestation-rate-reveals-google-forest-map/

Budidarsono, S., Susanti, A., and Zoomers, A., 2013. Oil palm plantations in Indonesia: the implications for migration, settlement/resettlement, and local economic development. Biofuels–Economy, environment, and sustainability, pp.173-193.

Barlow, C., Zen, Z., & Gondowarsito, R., 2003. The Indonesian oil palm industry. Oil Palm Industry Economic Journal, 3(1), pp. 8-15.

Environmental Investigation Agency., 2018. Backtracking on reform: How Indonesia’s government is weakening its palm oil standards. Retrieved from https://eia-international.org/news/backtracking-reform-indonesias-government-weakening-palm-oil-standards/

GreenPalm Organization., 2016. The social and environmental impact of palm oil. GreenPalm Organization. Retrieved from https://greenpalm.org/about-palm-oil/social-and-environmental-impact-of-palm-oil

German, L., Schoneveld, G., Skutsch, M., Andriani, R., Obidzinski, K., Pacheco, P., … and Dayang Norwana, A. A. B., 2010. The local social and environmental impacts of biofuel feedstock expansion: A synthesis of case studies from Asia, Africa, and Latin America. CIFOR.

Johnson, T., 2015. Palm oil companies exploit Indonesia’s people – and its corrupt political machine. The Guardian. Retrieved from https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/2015/jun/11/palm-oil-industry-indonesia-corruption-communities-forests

Moreno-Peñaranda, R., Gasparatos, A., Stromberg, P., Suwa, A., and De Oliveira, J. A. P., 2018. Stakeholder perceptions of the ecosystem services and human well-being impacts of palm oil biofuels in Indonesia and Malaysia. In Biofuels and Sustainability (pp. 133-173). Springer, Tokyo.

Purnomo, H., Okardaa, B., Dermawan, A., Ilhama, Q.P., and Bizarania, B., 2017. Proyeksi Sawit Indonesia: Debat kebijakan ekonomi, deforestasi dan moratorium. Researchgate. Press conference on 2017, April 6 at Thamrin School Climate Change and Sustainability at KPBB Office Sarinah, Jakarta. Retrieved from https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Herry_Purnomo/publication/328096387_Proyeksi_Sawit_Indonesia_Debat_kebijakan_ekonomi_deforestasi_dan_moratorium/links/5bb749a94585159e8d86f1ac/Proyeksi-Sawit-Indonesia-Debat-kebijakan-ekonomi-deforestasi-dan-moratorium.pdf?origin=publication_detail

Tomich, T. P., Noordwijk, M. V., Budidarsono, S., Gillison, A. N., Kusumanto, T., Murdiyarso, D., … and Fagi, A. M., 2001. Agricultural intensification, deforestation, and the environment: assessing tradeoffs in Sumatra, Indonesia. CAB International.

Syahza, A., 2004. Development Impact of Palm Oil Plantation on Rural Eco‐nomic Multiplier Effect in Riau Province. Jurnal Ekonomi, Th. X/03/November/2005, Jakarta. Fakultas Ekonomi Universitas Tarumanagara, Jakarta. http://dx. doi. org/10.5772/53586.

 
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