The Neo-corporative Mixed Economy

新企业混合经济

混合经济代写 This paper presents notes briefing on the negotiated economies of Denmark and Austria. A negotiated economy is a system…

This paper presents notes briefing on the negotiated economies of Denmark and Austria. A negotiated economy is a system of economy, political, or social organization that all the stakeholders are involved in decision-making by integrating them into the economic and political system. The reading on the negotiated economy in Denmark and Austria will enhance the understanding of how these economies function in policymaking.

译文:本文介绍了有关丹麦和奥地利的谈判经济情况的简报。协商经济是一种经济,政治或社会组织的系统,所有利益相关者都可以通过将其纳入经济和政治体系来参与决策。对丹麦和奥地利的谈判经济的阅读将增进对这些经济在决策中的作用的理解。

Negotiated Economy in Denmark

Denmark is a small country with a population of at most 5.2 million people (Campbell, Hall, & Pedersen, 2006). The country has advanced economies both politically, economically, socially, and legally. The prosperity of Denmark is vested in the optimization of the negotiated economy. Nonetheless, there are underlying traits that make the country distinct from other small countries including;

  1. External threats have created a public sense of vulnerability and hence elite use this as an opportunity to create policies for unity and common interests and identity.
  2. The country has a long history of small elite groups dominating state authority and hence making decisions that are based on national strategies and interests.
  3. Since the country is small and economy open, political decisions are pragmatic rather than based on ideals and ideologies.
  4. The country has institutionalized macro policy concertation based on negotiation and consensus.

丹麦谈判经济 混合经济代写

译文:丹麦是一个人口不超过520万的小国(Campbell,Hall和Pedersen,2006年)。该国在政治,经济,社会和法律上都有先进的经济体。丹麦的繁荣归功于谈判经济的优化。尽管如此,仍有一些潜在的特征使该国与其他小国区分开来,其中包括:

1.外部威胁造成了公众的脆弱感,因此,精英人士利用这种机会为制定统一,共同利益和认同的政策提供了机会。
2.该国由少数精英群体统治国家权威的悠久历史,因此根据国家战略和利益做出决策。
3.由于该国小而经济开放,因此政治决策是务实的,而不是基于理想和意识形态。
4.该国已将基于谈判和共识的宏观政策协调制度化。

These traits make the country distinct regarding policymaking principles that are neither mix nor market economy but of the negotiated economy. The negotiated economy of Denmark is characterized by neutral political and economic processes and relations. As such, the negotiated economy is that which coordinate the economy through the integration of autonomous actors in both the public and private sectors. The governance in Denmark is decentralized coupled with autonomy and authority in both public and private institutions. Generally, the economy of the country is built on solidarity in negotiated policies and trust.

译文:这些特征使该国在既不是混合经济也不是市场经济而是谈判经济的决策原则上与众不同。丹麦的谈判经济特点是中立的政治,经济进程和关系。因此,协商经济是指通过整合公共和私营部门中的自主参与者来协调经济的经济。丹麦的治理是分散的,在公共和私人机构中都具有自治权和权威。通常,该国的经济是建立在团结一致的谈判政策和信任基础上的。 混合经济代写

Socioeconomic discourse in Denmark

The Denmark social-economic discourse is based on a deliberate process that seeks to get a common ground for understanding economic issues. The macroeconomic phenomena in Denmark are not objective as expects but rather subjective based on the interpretation and perception of economic data. Instead of policies being shaped by the exotic frames to find the meaning of economic data, the discourse is based on the prior experience on the macroeconomic phenomena and common interest.

The Keynesian paradigm as applied by Denmark mainly focuses on balancing the negotiation of policies among the stakeholders. The approach is a blend of the principle of liberalism and social democracy. There are limited direct government interventions to enhance the autonomy of the actors in influencing policymaking. The social-democratic aspect is portrayed through the multiplicity of social interests.

丹麦的社会经济话语 混合经济代写

译文:丹麦的社会经济论述是基于一个经过深思熟虑的过程而进行的,该过程旨在为理解经济问题找到共同点。丹麦的宏观经济现象并非如预期那样客观,而是基于对经济数据的理解和理解而具有主观性。话语不是基于对宏观经济现象和共同利益的先验经验,而是根据外来的框架来制定政策来寻找经济数据的含义。 混合经济代写

丹麦采用的凯恩斯主义范式主要集中在利益相关者之间的政策谈判之间取得平衡。该方法融合了自由主义和社会民主主义的原则。政府采取的直接干预措施有限,以增强行为者在影响决策过程中的自主权。社会民主方面是通过多种社会利益来刻画的。

Structural policy as a political project

The policies that began as complementary to support existing ones have gradually come to constitute an overarching political project. Political systems have become the general ways of conducting negotiations. There exist processes for structural policy development. The government introduced an institutionalized form of investment through pension funds and wage-earner capital. As such, policymaking is considered as a trade-off between employment and balanced budgets for optimal management of aggregate demand.

结构性政策作为政治项目 混合经济代写

译文:最初以补充现有政策为辅的政策已逐渐成为一项总体政治项目。政治制度已成为进行谈判的一般方式。存在结构性政策制定的过程。政府通过养老基金和工薪资本引入了一种制度化的投资形式。因此,决策被认为是在就业和平衡预算之间进行折衷,以实现总需求的最佳管理。

There is a generalized system of negotiations is a process of steps including;

  1. Organizing negotiations between private and public sectors, local and central state, and labor and capital.
  2. Interlocking negotiation involves a sequence of negotiations at all levels.
  3. Allocating privileges among social partners
  4. Changing the mechanism for creating new policies and reform of the old ones requires experience
  5. Establishing an agency for implementing strategic policies

In summation, though the negotiation economy has been successful in Denmark, it does not imply it is a prerequisite for small countries to advance in the economy.

有一个广义的谈判制度,是一个包括以下步骤的过程:

1.组织私营和公共部门,地方和中央政府以及劳动力和资本之间的谈判。
2.互锁式谈判涉及各个级别的一系列谈判。
3.在社会伙伴之间分配特权
4.改变制定新政策的机制和旧政策的改革需要经验
5.建立执行战略政策的机构

总而言之,尽管谈判经济在丹麦取得了成功,但这并不意味着这是小国发展经济的先决条件。 混合经济代写

Austria’s Corporatism

Austria is among the smallest countries in the European Union. As of 1993, the country’s population was 3.7 million (TRAXLER, 1998). Manufacturing and service sector has the highest number of employees. It is considered the most corporatized country in western countries. The system is based on collaboration between state, capital, and labor. Four big interest associations represent labor in Austria including the Federal Chamber of Business, Peak of the Chambers of Agriculture, the Austria Trade Union Federation, and the Federal Chamber of Labor. Therefore, social partnership for collective bargaining between all the stakeholders regarding social and economic policies are influenced by the interests of labor and capital. Austria is distinct not only on its corporatist but also its stability from the negative influence of other European economies.

奥地利的法团主义 混合经济代写

译文:奥地利是欧盟中最小的国家之一。截至1993年,该国人口为370万(TRAXLER,1998年)。制造业和服务业拥有最多的员工。它被认为是西方国家中公司化程度最高的国家。该系统基于国家,资本和劳动力之间的协作。奥地利的四个大型利益协会代表了劳工组织,包括联邦商会,匹克农商会,奥地利工会联合会和联邦工会。因此,所有利益相关者之间就社会和经济政策进行集体谈判的社会伙伴关系受劳动力和资本利益的影响。奥地利不仅在公司主义上独树一帜,而且在其他欧洲经济体的负面影响下也具有独特的稳定性。

Social partnership

When Austria is compared to other European countries, it has weak labor and capital because of late industrialization. The issues of weak capital and labor were amplified by alliances with capitalist partners. These negative developments led to the creation of labor movements organizations. Labor unions became stronger before the First World War and were granted corporal status, security, and integrated into the formulation of public policy. The reason for empowering unions is the predominance of protectionist interests among capitalists. Therefore, labor associations became key players due to their organizational ability than business associations in collective bargaining.

混合经济代写
混合经济代写

社会伙伴关系 混合经济代写

译文:当奥地利与其他欧洲国家相比时,由于工业化后期,奥地利的劳动力和资本薄弱。与资本主义伙伴结成联盟,加剧了资本和劳动力不足的问题。这些消极的事态发展导致成立了劳工运动组织。第一次世界大战之前,工会变得更加强大,并获得了体面地位,安全保障,并融入了公共政策的制定中。赋予工会权力的原因是在资本主义中占主导地位的贸易保护主义利益。因此,由于工会组织的组织能力比工会组织的劳资谈判能力更强,因此它们成为关键参与者。

The role of the state in Austria’s industrial relations

There are four main roles of the state in industrial relations. First, it lay the rules for governing working conditions. Secondly, establish a framework of industrial relations.  Thirdly, participate in employment. Lastly, it sponsors corporatist macro-economic management.

国家在奥地利劳资关系中的作用

译文:国家在劳资关系中有四个主要作用。首先,它为管理工作条件奠定了规则。其次,建立劳资关系框架。第三,参加就业。最后,它赞助社团法人的宏观经济管理。 混合经济代写

Labor union structure

The labor union in Austria is the most centralized and distinct in western Europe. The union has fourteen affiliates from all over the country. There are blue-collar workers and white-collar workers in the private sector. There are either sectoral unions of blue-collar workers while most of the white-collar workers are in a single union. There is one union for both collars in art and media. The separation is important to prevent autonomous white-collar unions outside OGB.

工会组织 混合经济代写

译文:奥地利的工会是西欧最集中,最独特的工会。工会有来自全国各地的十四个会员。私营部门有蓝领工人和白领工人。蓝领工人有部门工会,而大多数白领工人在一个工会中。在艺术和媒体领域,两个领口都有一个统一的联盟。分离对于防止OGB之外的自治白领工会很重要。

Labor union policy

Labor unions in Austria have adopted a consistent position through experience dealing with capitalists. The main goals are to preserve the dignity of employment while promoting economic growth. The unions have adopted policies that prioritize employment more than a wage increase. They also respond to changes in the balance of political powers. The unions have focused more on quantitative macro-economic goals than qualitative goals related to the workplace.

工会政策 混合经济代写

译文:奥地利的工会通过与资本家打交道的经验,采取了一致的立场。主要目标是在促进经济增长的同时,维护就业的尊严。工会通过的政策优先考虑就业,而不是增加工资。他们还应对政治力量平衡的变化。工会更多地关注定量宏观经济目标,而不是与工作场所有关的定性目标。

Employers

Austria’s industrial sector is mostly comprised of large public sectors. The nationalized enterprises working together with the big four labor unions strived to maintain full employment in the 1970s by hoarding labor which short-lived due to economic problems. The government responded by privatization program that mainly focused on the manufacturing sector. The move led to the fragmentation of industries to form small enterprises. As a result, the sector became weak compared to employees’ associations.

Overall, Austria’s economy has performed well due to its stability and integration of various stakeholders in decision making. The centralized associations and decentralization of bargaining are compatible with the macro-economic goals of the country. The corporations are strong and flexible accompanied by wage inequality. These policies are essential for stability Austria has enjoyed for years.

雇主

译文:奥地利的工业部门主要由大型公共部门组成。国有企业与四大工会合作,努力通过ard积因经济问题而短暂的劳动力来维持充分的就业。政府通过主要针对制造业的私有化计划做出回应。此举导致产业分散,形成了小型企业。结果,与员工协会相比,该行业变得疲软。 混合经济代写

总体而言,奥地利经济的稳定和决策过程中各个利益相关者的融合,使其表现良好。讨价还价的集中式协会和权力下放与该国的宏观经济目标相适应。公司强大而灵活,并伴随着工资不平等。这些政策对于奥地利多年来享有的稳定至关重要。

References

TRAXLER, F. (1998). Austria – Still the Country of Corporatism. In: Ferner A. and Hyman R. (eds) Changing Industrial Relations in Europe, Oxford: Blackwell, pp.239-261.

Campbell, J. L., Hall, J. A., & Pedersen, O. K. (editors). (2006). National Identity and a Variety of Capitalism: The Case of Denmark, Montreal: McGill University Press

 
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