Physics as a Human Endeavor

Never at Rest – A Biography of Isaac Newton

物理学作为人类的努力
永不休息——艾萨克·牛顿传

牛顿原理代写 Isaac Newton is one of the most renowned physicist of the world, having coined concept after concept which became famous…

Introduction

介绍

Isaac Newton is one of the most renowned physicist of the world, having coined concept after concept which became famous and then widely accepted. When asked how he formulated his ideas on universal gravitation, Isaac Newton simply replied: ‘By thinking on it continually. He never truly rested, that is what the book is all about. The author describes, how Newton was always working, if not physically, then at least his mind was always thinking about one concept or another, and Newton loved the exchange of ideas.

Newton’s Principia helped Kepler’s 3 core ideas gain prestige. They were deemed ‘laws’ after the publication of the Principia (Westfall, pg. 6). He was fascinated by the works of Aristotle, Descartes, and Kepler, and decided to teach himself mathematics by learning from available publications. His drive and passion for knowledge, ignited a burning desire inside him, which allowed him to transcend boundaries, and gain knowledge through trial and error. He was not the kind of person who only believed in developing hypothesis, he also loved conducting experiments and proving or disproving theories.

Hooke and Newton wrote letters to each other, in which Hooke talked about his ideas on tangential motion and acceleration towards direction of force (Westfall, pg. 12). These letters helped Newton in coming up with the correlation between Keplerian Motion, and Centripetal Forces. Through their discussions, Newton was able to come to the idea that the curved path of the celestial objects was caused by inverse force.

译文:艾萨克牛顿是世界上最著名的物理学家之一,他创造了一个又一个概念,这些概念成名并被广泛接受。当被问及他是如何形成关于万有引力的想法时,艾萨克·牛顿简单地回答说:“通过不断地思考它。他从未真正休息过,这就是这本书的全部内容。作者描述了牛顿总是在工作,如果不是身体上的,那么至少他的头脑总是在思考一个或另一个概念,牛顿喜欢思想交流。 牛顿原理代写

牛顿原理帮助开普勒的 3 个核心思想获得声望。在《原理》(Westfall,第 6 页)出版后,它们被视为“法律”。他对亚里士多德、笛卡尔和开普勒的著作着迷,并决定通过从现有出版物中学习来自学数学。他对知识的动力和热情,点燃了他内心的炽热欲望,这让他能够超越界限,在试错中获得知识。他不是那种只相信发展假设的人,他也喜欢进行实验和证明或反驳理论。

胡克和牛顿互相写信,在信中胡克谈到了他关于力方向的切向运动和加速度的想法(Westfall,第 12 页)。这些信件帮助牛顿提出了开普勒运动和向心力之间的相关性。通过他们的讨论,牛顿能够得出天体的弯曲路径是由反作用力引起的想法。

His work on the principia is what really set him apart from others.

While many people believed that alchemists during that era were nothing more than con artists, Newton still continued to do alchemy. His Prinicpia was mostly based on the ideas that were previously shared by Kepler and Galileo, and Newton was well aware of that. This is because he heavily relied on the technical advancements being made by the astronomical community as they provided better and accurate data. Based on the principles developed by Hooke and Boyle for scientific experimentation, Newton conducted experiments. The final book of the Principia, was immensely influenced by the work that was exhibited in Kepler’s Copernican System.

There were a lot of people who did not agree with Newton’s ideas. And Newton faced intense competition in proving his theories correct. For example, Newton disagreed with Galileo’s measure of matter, and because Descartes’ measure of matter was also found to be invalid by Robert Boyle, therefore, Newton did not agree with that either. The concept of “mass” which was developed by Newton was strongly opposed by Ernst Mach (Westfall, pg. 59). And because there were others who considered alchemists to be con men, therefore, many people made light if his theories.

牛顿原理代写 
牛顿原理代写

他在原理方面的工作真正使他与其他人区分开来。 牛顿原理代写

译文:虽然很多人认为那个时代的炼金术士只不过是骗子,但牛顿仍然继续炼金术。他的《原理》主要基于开普勒和伽利略之前共享的思想,牛顿对此非常清楚。这是因为他严重依赖天文学界的技术进步,因为他们提供了更好、更准确的数据。根据胡克和波义耳为科学实验制定的原理,牛顿进行了实验。原理的最后一本书受到了开普勒哥白尼体系中展出的作品的巨大影响。

有很多人不同意牛顿的想法,牛顿在证明他的理论正确方面面临着激烈的竞争。比如牛顿不同意伽利略的物质度量,又因为笛卡尔的物质度量也被罗伯特·波义耳认定为无效,所以牛顿也不同意。牛顿提出的“质量”概念遭到恩斯特·马赫的强烈反对(Westfall,第 59 页)。也因为有人认为炼金术士是骗子,所以很多人都轻视了他的理论。 牛顿原理代写

Newton’s Principia shifted the course of natural philosophy in the 16th century (Westfall, pg. 59).

This was because it was able to rationalize nature mathematically unlike the works that came before it. The manner in which Newton came up with the Universal Law of Gravitation, was something that was frowned upon by the scientific community. Leibniz was one of the most prominent enemies that Newton had made for himself. And they had different preferences when it came to the use of mathematics. He accused Newton of plagiarizing his work, which was defended by Nicolar Duillier. Who had the earlier versions of Principia’s Manuscripts, thus proving that Newton had come up with those concepts on his own.

While his work was scorned upon and disagreed with by his fellow scientists and mathematicians. What is interesting to note is that eventually his work was found to be extremely important and sound in its theories. However, later on, his work was considered to be one of the best of its time. And set the basis of all the things that would eventually be taught in physics. Newton’s Principia, helped in changing the manner in which natural philosophy was referred to. It is considered to be one of the most prominent books to be published in that era.

牛顿的原理改变了 16 世纪自然哲学的进程(Westfall,第 59 页)。

译文:这是因为与之前的作品不同,它能够在数学上合理化自然。牛顿提出万有引力定律的方式遭到了科学界的反对。莱布尼茨是牛顿为自己树立的最突出的敌人之一,他们在使用数学时有不同的偏好。他指责牛顿抄袭了他的作品,而尼古拉·杜利尔为他辩护,后者拥有《原理》手稿的早期版本,从而证明牛顿是自己提出这些概念的。

虽然他的工作受到同行科学家和数学家的蔑视和不同意,但有趣的是,最终他的工作被发现在其理论中极其重要和合理。然而,后来,他的工作被认为是当时最好的工作之一,并为最终将在物理学中教授的所有事物奠定了基础。牛顿的《原理》帮助改变了提及自然哲学的方式。它被认为是那个时代出版的最杰出的书籍之一。 牛顿原理代写

Conclusion

To conclude, Newton’s work as a whole is considered to be remarkable by the entire world, however, during his time the work was heavily critiqued by his peers and rivals. With the passage of time, his work is the most widely cited. And taught when it comes to teaching physics and it is considered to be one of the most significant works of his time.

结论 牛顿原理代写

译文:总而言之,牛顿的作品作为一个整体被全世界认为是非凡的,然而,在他的时代,他的作品受到了同行和竞争对手的严厉批评。随着时间的推移,他的作品在物理教学方面被广泛引用和教授,被认为是他那个时代最重要的作品之一。

References

Richard S. Westfall, Never at rest. A biography of Isaac Newton, retrieved 22-10-18 from;

https://kundoc.com/pdf-never-at-rest-a-biography-of-isaac-newton-.html

 
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