A study on the Renewable Energy Consumption and Sustainable Growth
环境学代写 The concept of sustainability has evolved and practiced by many countries over the past decades. In order to ···
The concept of sustainability has evolved and practiced by many countries over the past decades. In order to achieve that sustainability, the world has degraded its environment at an increasing rate. The discrepancy between the expectation of people and actual operation of people has lead to the negative externality which creates an adverse impact on society and environment.
Therefore the gain from the economic, social and environmental benefit outweighs the cost borne for the environmental, social and economic causes. However, in the present days, the countries have become cautious about their renewable energy resources which are a significant form for achieving long term sustainability.
An important aspect of the renewable energy resources is the usage of comparatively lower greenhouse gas footprint. Till date, most of the countries treated the carbon emission as an uncoated externality. A recent study conducted by the life cycle of Australia has proved that concentrated solar. And wind power use more of the liquefied natural gas and coal steam gas.
And therefore it does not produce injurious greenhouse gas during the production process of electricity. With this background, the present paper has been structured to analyze the energy-mix. And the function of renewable energy resources for sustainable growth in Australia.
Energy sector of Australia
Australia is recognized as the world’s ninth largest producer of energy which account for about 2.5 percent of the total energy produced in the world and 5 percent of the total exported energy (Christensen, Denton and et.al 2015). Therefore, the total production of energy sources accounts for approximately 5 percent of the total gross value added of the country in 2009-10. In the present days.
The demand for energy products have experienced sharp rise mainly on account of the rising export sector and domestic utilization ( Commonwealth of Australia 2004). Therefore, the policy makers can promote the energy sector of Australia by taking better decision about the prospect of investment to meet the future demand of the country.
澳大利亚被公认为世界第九大能源生产国，约占世界总能源生产量的2.5％，占出口总能源量的5％（Christensen，Denton等，2015）。 因此，在2009-10年度，能源的总产量约占该国总增加值的5％。 在现在的日子里。
Primary sources of energy in Australia
The primary sources of energy in Australia comprises of black coal, brown coal, natural gas, liquefied petroleum gas, crude oil, refined product, renewable and uranium. Among all the sources, black coal is the largest contributor for the production of energy in Australia (Geoscience Australia and BREE 2014). Black coal accounts for almost 49 percent of the total energy supply in Australia even though the production level stumbled heavily on account of the Queensland floods occurred during 2009-10 and 2010-11. The strong abroad demand particularly from China has supported the production level of black coal.
The second largest source of the energy products in Australia is Uranium. However, the production level of Uranium has fallen significantly from 25% in 2009-10 to 18% in 2010-11 (BREE (Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics) 2013). On the contrary, the amount of energy generated from natural gas. And crude oil has increased over the same period from 10 percent to 13 percent and 12 percent respectively. The sources of energy and their change in percentage have been depicted in the following diagram.
澳大利亚的主要能源包括黑煤，褐煤，天然气，液化石油气，原油，精炼产品，可再生能源和铀。在所有来源中，黑煤是澳大利亚能源生产的最大贡献者（Geoscience Australia和BREE 2014）。尽管由于昆士兰州2009-10年和2010-11年发生洪灾而导致产量严重下降，但黑煤仍占澳大利亚能源总供应量的49％。国外的强劲需求，特别是来自中国的强劲需求，支撑了黑煤的生产水平。
Figure 1: Sources of energy I Australia for the period between 2008-09 to 2010-11
The production of energy from different renewable sources also increases by 16 percent in 2010-11 as compared to 2008-09. The renewable source for energy production accounts for approximately 2 percent whereas the production of energy from wind. And solar sources has enhanced significantly in the present time approximately by 50 percent in 2010-11 s compared to 2008-09. A major part of domestic renewable energy sources originated from the renewable fuel products. And hydro-electricity which accounts for 63 percent and 23 percent of the total renewable energy production respectively in 2010-11.
与2008-09年相比，2010-11年来自不同可再生资源的能源生产也增长了16％。 能源生产中的可再生能源约占2％，而风能则为可再生能源。 与2008-09相比，当前的太阳能在2010-11年度显着提高了约50％。 国内可再生能源的很大一部分来自可再生燃料产品。 在2010-11年，水电分别占可再生能源总产量的63％和23％。
Emission of Carbon-di-oxide
The emission of carbon di oxide is the principle reason for global warming. Global emission of carbon di oxide has increased by 3 percent in 2011 (Olivier, Janssens-Maenhout and Peters 2012). In Australia, the emission of carbon di oxide gas has increased by 8 percent in 2011 s compared to the previous year (Evershed 2013). The increasing trend of the gas has attracted the concern of the Australian government which moves from a specific price on emission towards the trading structure.
The government initiative has been adopted from the seasonal and weather fluctuations. Australia is suffering from the rising trend emissions mainly with respect to fugitive emission. Fugitive emission comprises of the gases originates from the production of fossil fuels, like coal mining (Evershed 2013). Moreover, the fugitive emission also can originate from the stationary energy apart from the electricity coming out from burning fuel at the time of manufacturing and mining procedure.
The report says that the carbon di oxide emission from the process of electricity generation has reduced by 4.7 percent which is largely on account of the reduction in the demand for electricity (World Resources Institute 2015). The previous climate change minister Greg Combet stated that implementation of carbon tax has played a crucial role for the reduction in carbon emission from electricity generation. In general, according to a report prepared by World Resource Institute, Australia is the 15th largest emitter of carbon di oxide in the world (World Resources Institute 2015).
二氧化碳的排放是全球变暖的主要原因。 2011年，全球二氧化碳排放量增加了3％（Olivier，Janssens-Maenhout和Peters 2012）。在澳大利亚，2011 s的二氧化碳气体排放量比上一年（Evershed 2013）增加了8％。天然气的增长趋势引起了澳大利亚政府的关注，澳大利亚政府已从特定的排放价格转变为交易结构。
Renewable in energy-mix and government supported program
The Australian economy is based on the carbon energy economy which compares the usage of fossil fuels as against the renewable in order to produce energy in the country over the time. The Australian government has classified an imperative function of the technology in order to reduce the emission of carbon pollution and thus the government has invested more than $5 billion for the development and commercialization of the clean energy technologies (Australian Government 2015).
Renewable energy is considered to be an indispensable element of small emissions energy mix of Australia and is imperative to achieve the sustainability in the energy sector of the country. Renewable energy performs a significant function for reducing the greenhouse gas, in which it can reinstate superior energy foundations and help Australia to act accordingly so that it can meet the compulsions as mentioned in the Kyoto Protocol (KPMG INTERNATIONAL 2014). Figure 2 portrays the amount of primary energy supplied by the fossil fuel and renewable energy resources.
可再生能源被认为是澳大利亚小排放能源结构中不可或缺的要素，对于实现澳大利亚能源部门的可持续性至关重要。可再生能源在减少温室气体方面起着重要作用，它可以恢复优越的能源基础并帮助澳大利亚采取相应行动，从而使其能够满足《京都议定书》（KPMG INTERNATIONAL 2014）所述的强制性规定。图2描绘了化石燃料和可再生能源所提供的一次能源数量。
Figure 2: Total primary energy supply in Australia by Renewable and non renewable sources 环境经济学代写
In the present case, he total primary energy supply is considered as the summation of all the energy supplied within the economy and it is equivalent to the gap between domestic production including import and export. Thus the total primary energy supply considers the supply of both the primary and secondary fuels.
In 2010-11, the total primary energy supply of Australia was 6100 petajoules (PJ) out of which non renewable resources account for 96 percent of the energy produced whereas renewable sources accounts for only remaining 4 percent of energy (Australian renewable energy agency 2015). The energy supply from the non renewable sources has enhanced by approximately 57 percent over the period between 1990 and 2011 whereas the amount of energy produced from the renewable sources has increased by only 9 percent.
This growth rate in renewable energy resources is less than fossil fuel and thus the share of renewable energy resources has fallen from 6 percent in 1990-91 to 4 percent in 2010-11. In 2010-11, 10 percent of the electricity generated in Australia originates from the renewable resources. One of the important renewable energy resources is the hydro power which is utilized to produce electricity in Australia.
During 2003-04, the hydro power has generated the maximum electricity at approximately 60 PJ in a year (Origin 2015). However, the production of electricity has fallen by 13 percent during the period between 2004-05 and 2009-10 on account of the occurrence of an extreme drought. In the same manner, extreme flood situation affect the eastern region of Australia during 2010-11 which helps to recover the condition by 24 percent. Figure 3 shows the quantity of electricity produced from the renewable sources.
在2010-11年度，澳大利亚的一次能源供应总量为6100 petajoules（PJ），其中非可再生资源占生产能源的96％，而可再生资源仅占能源的剩余4％（澳大利亚可再生能源机构2015） 。从1990年到2011年，非可再生能源的能源供应量增长了约57％，而可再生能源生产的能源量仅增长了9％。
在2003-04年期间，水力发电每年产生的最大电力约为60 PJ（Origin 2015）。但是，由于发生了极端干旱，在2004-05至2009-10年期间，电力生产下降了13％。同样，极端洪水形势在2010-11年度影响了澳大利亚东部地区，使该状况恢复了24％。图3显示了可再生能源的发电量。
Figure 3: Amount of electricity generated from renewable sources
Wind power can be considered as the second largest renewable energy source in order to generate electricity. In 2009-10, wind power has generated 23 percent of electricity (Talberg 2010).
为了发电，可以将风能视为第二大可再生能源。 在2009-10年度，风能发电量占总发电量的23％（Talberg 2010）。
Overall growth of the economy
Australia is an active participant of the Organization for Economic cooperation and Development (OECD) group which aims to develop policies to improve the economic and social standard of living of people all over the world. Only three countries of OECD group export hydrocarbon and Australia is one among them ( Commonwealth of Australia 2014).
Moreover, Australia is recognized as the largest net exporter of coal and importer of oil. The economy of Australia has experienced rapid growth in terms of gross domestic product (GDP). GDP of the country in 2011 was 40030 PPP dollars which is increased by approximately 11 percent as compared to 2008-09 (The World Bank 2015) (Future Directions International 2010).
The oil, gas and energy sector are the principal contributors in the growth rate of the Australian economy. A report prepared by KPMG Econtech states that the petroleum industry in Australia has contributed $6.2 billion every year to the total gross domestic product (BREE (Bureau of Resources and Energy Economics) 2013). This share is equivalent to the two third of the entire contribution by the textile, clothing and footwear sectors and twofold of the forestry and finishing sectors.
In order to meet the rising demand of the increasing population, Australia has invested significantly in oil, gas, and energy sector which ensures the future economic growth of the country (Pepall, Richards and Norman 1999). Moreover, Australia has high potentiality to expand the capacity of production and increase the export. The country has also proved itself as a safe and reliable destination for foreign investment which fosters the economic growth. By considering the energy sector, only coal and gas sector has attracted $31 billion investment in 2010-11 (AMMA 2015).
此外，澳大利亚被公认为是最大的煤炭净出口国和石油进口国。澳大利亚的经济在国内生产总值（GDP）方面经历了快速增长。该国2011年的国内生产总值为40030美元购买力平价，与2008-09年（世界银行，2015年）相比（增长约10％）（Future Directions International 2010），增长了约11％。
为了满足不断增长的人口不断增长的需求，澳大利亚在石油，天然气和能源领域进行了大量投资，以确保该国未来的经济增长（Pepall，Richards和Norman 1999）。此外，澳大利亚具有扩大生产能力和增加出口的巨大潜力。该国还证明自己是促进经济增长的外国投资的安全可靠的目的地。考虑到能源行业，仅煤炭和天然气行业在2010-11年度就吸引了310亿美元的投资（AMMA 2015）。
CO2 emissions reduction schemes of the country
The government of Australia is committed to reduce the emissions in the country by implementing several policies. The government has undertaken several regulatory measures which comprises of labeling and setting minimum performance standard for electrical devices, building conventions and limitation in the process of clearing the land (Departmnt of the Environment 2015).
A number of trading policies have been evolved by the Australian government in order to develop the renewable energy and to reduce emissions in the land segment. In 2011, the government has taken a legislation which aims to generate carbon pricing method which signifies a cap and trade emissions trading procedure (Climate change authority 2014).
This mechanism has been structured to procure reduction in emission through a repeal auction. The principle approach of the government is adoption of the Emissions Reduction Fund which is based on the ideology of lowest-cost, genuine and supplementary emissions diminution, and rationalized management. A budget of $2.55 billion has been allocated in 2014-15 to purchase the credited emissions reduction (Climate change authority 2014).
Feasibility of renewable for sustainable development
The growth of renewable energy in Australia is supported by Australian government policies which are aligned with the policies about climate change, energy sovereignty and growth of economy. Several researchers have suggested that in near future, Australia will be able to produce energy entirely based on the renewable sources by setting up extra large-scale solar and wind power expansions if the country receives adequate amount of public and private sector investment and less fluctuated government policy (Scherer and Ross 1990).
Renewable energy sources can be strengthened by promoting communication infrastructure and adopting suitable energy efficiency appraises. In Australia, the economic development is strongly associated with the rising energy use and the growth of greenhouse gas emission (Caves, et al. 1987). Therefore, renewable sources can promote that association which contributes to the sustainable development based on economy, ecology and society.
澳大利亚可再生能源的增长受到澳大利亚政府政策的支持，这些政策与有关气候变化，能源主权和经济增长的政策保持一致。 几位研究人员认为，如果澳大利亚能够获得足够的公共和私营部门投资，并且政府波动较小，那么在不久的将来，澳大利亚将能够通过建立额外的大规模太阳能和风能发电设施来完全基于可再生能源来生产能源。 政策（Scherer and Ross 1990）。
可以通过促进通信基础设施和采用适当的能效评估来加强可再生能源。 在澳大利亚，经济发展与能源使用量的增加和温室气体排放量的增加密切相关（Caves，et al.1987）。 因此，可再生资源可以促进这种协会，为基于经济，生态和社会的可持续发展做出贡献。
The above research study shows that Australia has plentiful, superior quality and various energy resources which comprises of both renewable and non-renewable resources. Major sources of energy in Australia are black coal, natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas whereas the major source of renewable energy is hydroelectricity and wind power. The country has huge potentiality to develop its renewable energy resources for which the government has adopted necessary measures.
上述研究表明，澳大利亚拥有丰富，优质的能源，包括可再生和不可再生资源在内的各种能源。 澳大利亚的主要能源是黑煤，天然气和液化石油气，而可再生能源的主要来源是水力发电和风力发电。 该国具有开发其可再生能源的巨大潜力，政府已为此采取了必要措施。
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