ARTS RESPONSE ESSAY
环境问题代写 The environment is everything living around us, either living or non-living things. These range from chemical, physical, to all…
The environment is everything living around us, either living or non-living things. These range from chemical, physical, to all other natural or artificial forces that we interact with. And have an impact on our lives. Considering the environment includes all the organisms we interact with. And the places we live in, it has the impacts on our growth and development. The invention and use of the word environment say much regarding how some societies grew to understand their relationship with the biophysical world (Sörlin 2018, pp 27). However, with time, the word environment became the bearer of the old notion in the West that surrounding conditions influenced people and societies.
In this case, the environment was mostly regarded as the climate such as temperature, humidity. And features of the landscape. But, later in the 19th Century, the environment was used to depict the various influences nature. And the surrounding had on humans, but still, the environment was not an object of investigation. Currently, the environment is embraced to be a wider scope of geography, which is typically everything around humans. And thus it is a global environment. In this case, the many natural features of the environment are so much of our environment as the artificial aspects of our environment made by humans (Callicott, 1992, pp 16). Therefore this essay will discuss Calicott’s statement that Chicago is no less a phenomenon of nature that is the Great Coral Reef. And concludes by reflecting on Bruce Hull’s political question, how should human related to nature.
译文：环境是生活在我们周围的一切，无论是生物还是非生物。这些范围从化学、物理到我们与之相互作用的所有其他自然或人工力量。并对我们的生活产生影响。考虑到环境包括我们与之互动的所有生物。我们居住的地方，它对我们的成长和发展产生影响。环境一词的发明和使用说明了一些社会如何逐渐了解他们与生物物理世界的关系（Sörlin 2018，第 27 页）。然而，随着时间的推移，环境这个词在西方成为了旧观念的承载者，即周围的条件会影响人和社会。 环境问题代写
在这种情况下，环境多被认为是温度、湿度等气候。和景观的特点。但是，在 19 世纪后期，环境被用来描绘自然的各种影响。周围对人类有影响，但环境仍然不是调查的对象。目前，环境被认为是一个更广泛的地理范围，这通常是人类周围的一切。因此，这是一个全球环境。在这种情况下，环境的许多自然特征与人类环境的人造方面一样都是我们的环境（Callicott，1992，第 16 页）。因此，本文将讨论卡利科特 (Calicott) 的陈述，即芝加哥同样是大珊瑚礁的自然现象。并通过反思布鲁斯赫尔的政治问题来结束，人类应该如何与自然联系起来。
The old mechanistic idea of nature is dying.
In the 21st century. We are experiencing a huge shift to a new idea of the environment where nature is depicted as an organic system which constitutes of humans as one of its constituents rather than seeing them as brutal. And finally self-defeating conquistadores. Human beings have had huge impacts on the entire environment and its general nature. These are both positive and negative impacts. However, many researchers concentrate on the negative impacts and thus regard human beings to be brutal members of the environment (Callicott, 1992, pp 16). In fact, many researchers claim humans have killed nature more than they have killed God.
Therefore, in the new systemic and dynamic postmodern concept of nature human beings are more excluded than they are included in the environment. In this regard, human technologies must be evaluated to determine their merits on the environment. Because there is some hope that they might be of help with the various modern environmental issues linked with environmental ethics (Callicott, 1992, pp 16).
译文：在 21 世纪。我们正在经历向环境新观念的巨大转变，在这种观念中，自然被描绘成一个有机系统，将人类作为其组成部分之一，而不是将他们视为野蛮的。最后是自我挫败的征服者。人类对整个环境及其一般性质产生了巨大的影响。这些都是正面和负面的影响。然而，许多研究人员专注于负面影响，因此将人类视为环境的残酷成员（Callicott，1992，第 16 页）。事实上，许多研究人员声称人类杀死自然的次数多于他们杀死上帝的次数。
因此，在新的系统的、动态的自然后现代概念中，人类被排除在外的程度比被包含在环境中的程度要大。在这方面，必须评估人类技术以确定它们对环境的优点。因为有些希望它们可能有助于解决与环境伦理相关的各种现代环境问题（Callicott，1992，第 16 页）。
The major revolution of the environment started after the end of World War II.
The environment started being seeing not only as the surrounding of human beings. But also as the various growing cities in the world. Environment not only meant the impacts nature. And all its constituents had on humans, but also the impacts human beings had on their surroundings. And nature (Sörlin 2018, pp 29). Human beings had a huge impact on the environment especially because of the rapid population growth. And migration that followed the end of the war. Thus, it resulted in pollution, soil erosion and rapid use of natural resources. Thus, humans were perceived to be more destructive to the environment that they contributed to its development (Sörlin 2018, pp 29).
What the many scientists failed to observe was that while human beings contributed to the various negative impacts on the environment. They soon intervened and found solutions. Modern technology is the greatest contributor to the various environmental issues which humans have helped resolve (Callicott, 1992, pp 16-20). Some of the environmental issues that humans have helped resolve are not their doings. But some are caused by the other forces of nature especially living things. And natural phenomena such as climatic disasters. In addition to solving some of the possible catastrophic issues in the environment, humans do have actual positive impacts on the environment which most scientists fail to see because of their notion of the environment.
译文：环境开始不仅仅被视为人类的周围。但也随着世界上各个不断发展的城市。环境不仅意味着影响自然。它的所有成分都对人类产生了影响，但也影响了人类对周围环境的影响。和自然（Sörlin 2018，第 29 页）。人类对环境产生了巨大的影响，特别是由于人口的快速增长。以及战争结束后的移民。因此，它导致了污染、水土流失和自然资源的快速利用。因此，人类被认为对环境更具破坏性，因为他们促进了环境的发展（Sörlin 2018，第 29 页）。 环境问题代写
许多科学家未能观察到的是，人类对环境造成了各种负面影响。他们很快介入并找到了解决方案。现代技术是人类帮助解决的各种环境问题的最大贡献者（Callicott, 1992, pp 16-20）。人类帮助解决的一些环境问题不是他们的行为。但有些是由其他自然力特别是生物引起的。以及气候灾害等自然现象。除了解决环境中一些可能的灾难性问题外，人类确实对环境产生了实际的积极影响，而大多数科学家由于他们对环境的概念而看不到这些影响。
According to most scientists
And the western understanding of nature, the environment only constitutes of the non-human world which are the forests, rivers, oceans, all the spaces where human beings do not reside. Also, it is to mean that nature only constitutes of the various aspects. And objects of nature created by the other living organisms and not humans (Vining, et al., 2008, pp. 1). In this regard, one of the greatest components of nature from living organisms is the Great Barrier Reef in Australia. The Great Barrier Reef is one of the world’s seven natural wonders and is great in every way. It is the world’ largest coral reef system sprawling for an amazing 344, 000 square kilometers, making it the largest living structure in the world, so large that it can be viewed from space (Hughes, 2015, pp. 508).
The reef is located in the Queensland coast and is composed of 3000 separate reef systems, 600 tropical islands, around 300 coral cays. And 760 fringe reefs The complex maze structure is the habitat of a huge variety of marine plants. And animals which further makes it more phenomenal (WHITTEN, 2015, pp. 1986). It is one of the world’s most popular tourist attractions and a global reputation for its kaleidoscopic corals, turquoise waters. And abundant life and above 900 islands (Hughes, 2015, pp. 508).
译文：而西方对自然的理解，环境只构成了非人类的世界，即森林、河流、海洋，所有人类不居住的空间。此外，这意味着自然仅由各个方面构成。以及由其他生物而非人类创造的自然物体（Vining 等人，2008 年，第 1 页）。在这方面，澳大利亚的大堡礁是生物体中最大的自然组成部分之一。大堡礁是世界七大自然奇观之一，各方面都很棒。它是世界上最大的珊瑚礁系统，占地 344, 000 平方公里，是世界上最大的生物结构，大到可以从太空中看到（休斯，2015 年，第 508 页）。
珊瑚礁位于昆士兰海岸，由 3000 个独立的珊瑚礁系统、600 个热带岛屿和大约 300 个珊瑚礁组成。和760个边缘珊瑚礁复杂的迷宫结构是种类繁多的海洋植物的栖息地。以及进一步使其更加惊人的动物（WHITTEN，2015，pp. 1986）。它是世界上最受欢迎的旅游景点之一，以其万花筒般的珊瑚和碧绿的海水而享誉全球。以及丰富的生命和 900 多个岛屿（休斯，2015 年，第 508 页）。
However despite is a huge impact to Australia’s tourism industry
The Great Barrier Reef is not an economic resource but a network of marine structures of unparalleled ecological importance. And evidence of the beauty and superiority of nature. Human beings have had a huge impact on the coral reefs causing them to die worldwide. It is because of damaging human activities such as water pollution, overfishing, blast fishing, coral mining, warming oceans. And digging canals and access to bay and islands (Eakin et al., 2009, pp. 41). According to a study conducted in 2008, only 46% of the world’s coral reefs are in good health, 60% are at risk of destruction by human activities. And 17% are likely to be lost in the next 20 years. By 2030 90% of all reefs are expected to be at risk from climatic changes and human activities while by 2050, all coral reefs worldwide will be in danger (Hughes, 2015, pp. 509-511).
大堡礁不是经济资源，而是具有无与伦比生态重要性的海洋结构网络。以及大自然的美丽和优越性的证据。人类对珊瑚礁产生了巨大的影响，导致它们在世界范围内死亡。这是因为破坏性的人类活动，如水污染、过度捕捞、爆炸捕鱼、珊瑚开采、海洋变暖。以及挖掘运河和通往海湾和岛屿的通道（Eakin 等，2009，第 41 页）。根据 2008 年进行的一项研究，世界上只有 46% 的珊瑚礁健康状况良好，60% 的珊瑚礁面临被人类活动破坏的风险。未来 20 年可能会流失 17%。到 2030 年，90% 的珊瑚礁预计将面临气候变化和人类活动的威胁，而到 2050 年，全球所有珊瑚礁都将处于危险之中（休斯，2015 年，第 509-511 页）。
In this aspect, human beings are indeed harmful to the environment
Because of the various harmful human activates that yield negative impacts on the non-human world. However, it is the same humans who are trying to control the environment through technology to avoid the massive changes in climate to control the projected dangers on the environment. Also, there are human activities focused on protecting the environment such as forestation and air and soil conservation measures. Moreover, what people forget that the environment is not only that which is non-human, but human beings and human activities contribute to our nature (Callicott, 1992, pp 19-21).
In the 21st century, if the environment is only regarded as the non-human world, then there is very little nature left because almost every mark today constitutes evidence of human impacts and presence. These range from climatic changes, mass extinction and the many mega-cities worldwide. However, some areas have been impacted less than others which make them the closest thing the 21st century has to non-human nature. Nonetheless, accepting the perspective that nature is a spectrum and not a rigid black. And white condition evades the main conceptual problem (Sörlin 2018, pp 29).
译文：因为各种有害的人类活动会对非人类世界产生负面影响。然而，正是同样的人类试图通过技术控制环境以避免气候的巨大变化来控制对环境的预期危险。此外，还有以保护环境为重点的人类活动，例如造林和空气和水土保持措施。此外，人们忘记了环境不仅是非人类的，而且人类和人类活动对我们的自然做出了贡献（Callicott，1992，pp 19-21）。 环境问题代写
在 21 世纪，如果仅将环境视为非人类世界，那么自然所剩无几，因为如今几乎每一个标记都构成了人类影响和存在的证据。这些范围从气候变化、大规模灭绝和世界范围内的许多特大城市。然而，一些地区受到的影响比其他地区小，这使它们成为 21 世纪最接近非人类自然的东西。尽管如此，接受自然是光谱而不是僵硬的黑色的观点。白色条件回避了主要的概念问题（Sörlin 2018，第 29 页）。
The real question is why do human beings change the environment whether positively
Or disastrous the changes might be to make a place unnatural. The fact is humans alter the environment in an attempt to make it more conducive for their survival (Vining, et al., 2008, pp. 2-3). For example, if people lived in the environment the way they fund it, with trees for the better part of the environment forming a dense canopy, then it would be extremely hard for us to survive. People would not have a warm shelter to live in. Or enough space to secure the entire population considering most of the environment is occupied by trees Thus, people clear the trees and leave on some parts of the fore4sts enough for the freshness of their environment. And use the other areas to build their houses and other infrastructure to guarantee they have a more conducive environment for their survival (Environmental Humanities, 2016).
译文：或者灾难性的变化可能会使一个地方变得不自然。事实上，人类改变环境是为了使其更有利于他们的生存（Vining 等人，2008 年，第 2-3 页）。例如，如果人们以他们资助的方式生活在环境中，大部分环境中的树木形成茂密的树冠，那么我们将很难生存。人们不会有一个温暖的庇护所居住。或者考虑到大部分环境被树木占据，没有足够的空间来保护整个人口因此，人们清除树木并在森林的某些部分留下足够的空间以保持环境的新鲜度。并利用其他地区建造房屋和其他基础设施，以确保他们拥有更有利的生存环境（Environmental Humanities，2016）。
Moreover, they build skyscrapers
And other tall buildings to accommodate the fast-growing population which would not fit if all houses were built as bungalows. What people do to alter the environment for their survival is not in any way different from how other living organisms alter nature for their own survival(Sörlin 2018, pp 30). For example, in a forest, birds use twigs and leaves to weave their nests to make a comfortable. And warm shelter for themselves. Also, beavers collect a large pile of sticks and branches to form a lodge also for their shelter (Environmental Humanities, 2016).
To most scientists and people, then a bird’s nest and a beaver lodge are regarded as nature, while when people clear the forest to build a hut or any other building for their accommodation, it is regarded as dangerous acts and not nature. It is despite the fact that all the three structures were built by their natural inhabitants, yet the one that belongs to a human is disregarded as not natural. Yet, the only difference between the three structures is that human beings build their structures deliberately from a rational activity. Therefore, traditionally, only the human act is destructive to nature while all the other animal activities, despite being for the same reason as that of humans, are nature (Environmental Humanities, 2016).
译文：和其他高层建筑以容纳快速增长的人口，如果所有房屋都建造为平房，这些建筑将无法容纳。人们为生存而改变环境的行为与其他生物为了自身生存而改变自然的方式没有任何不同（Sörlin 2018，第 30 页）。例如，在森林中，鸟类用树枝和树叶编织巢穴，以营造舒适的环境。和温暖的庇护所。此外，海狸收集一大堆树枝和树枝，形成一个小屋，也用作它们的庇护所（环境人文，2016）。
The notion suggests that birds
And because and any other animals activities take place in nature, while human activities act on nature and later it from its natural state. In this context, humans are considered to be fundamentally different from all the other animals because they act consciously while the other animals act from instinct or natural drivers of nature (Environmental Humanities, 2016).
However, if humans are the only animals with the ability to make rational and conscious decisions regarding our nature why should that be used to place us outside the niche of nature. Instead, our rationality should be understood and regarded as one of the achievements of the long animal evolution which makes us different from the other animals. Nonetheless, we should remember that human beings are still important biological organisms which are part of nature just like any other organisms. Philosopher Dominique argues that ‘Humans did not emerge from the state of nature, but they have explored an extreme niche of that nature’ (Environmental Humanities, 2016).
In fact, humans are dependent on many non-human organisms and environmental components for our clean water, air, and food, without which humans would not survive. Thus, from an ecological perspective, humans are by all means part of nature. Even within our bodies, many of our body functions are dependent on non-humans such as microorganisms which greatly contribute to the functioning of the immune system, digestion, and hormone production (Environmental Humanities, 2016).
事实上，人类的清洁水、空气和食物依赖于许多非人类生物和环境成分，没有这些，人类将无法生存。因此，从生态学的角度来看，人类绝对是自然的一部分。即使在我们的身体内，我们的许多身体功能也依赖于非人类，例如微生物，它们对免疫系统、消化和激素产生的功能有很大贡献（Environmental Humanities，2016）。 环境问题代写
Therefore, humans cannot exits and cannot be humans
without the many non-humans which contribute to their general well-being. With this in mind, it is absurd to think that human beings are outside the non-human environment regarded as natural. People are part of nature, they are woven through it, they depend on it for nourishment and many other ways, and even nature depends on human beings.
In this regard, the issue is not that the 21st century has no nature left, because it has no place untouched by humans, but rather the 21st century has a complex different type of nature which has never existed before. The many mega-cities built by human beings are a spectacular part of human nature. For example, the city of Chicago, just like the coral reefs, it was built through many human activities skillfully implemented over the years with multiple uses of technology and human machinery and to make the city as spectacular as it is (Environmental Humanities, 2016). Therefore, I agree with Calicott’s statement because the same way the coral barrier reef is a phenomenal component of nature build by a living organism so is Chicago a phenomenal component of nature built by humans.
Answering to Bruce wiling question, how should humans relate to nature, humans are rational thinkers, therefore, they should engage in activities that protect the environment. There are many human activities that destroy the environment; humans should avoid these because they destroy the environment for the survival of the other living organisms and themselves. Therefore, they should embark on protecting. And preserving the environment by implementing anthropocentrism environmental ethics for their survival, that of non-humans and future generations.
在这方面，问题不是21世纪没有自然，因为它没有人类未触及的地方，而是21世纪具有前所未有的复杂的不同类型的自然。人类建造的众多特大城市是人性的一个壮观部分。例如，芝加哥市，就像珊瑚礁一样，它是通过多年来巧妙地实施的许多人类活动建造的，并多次使用技术和人类机械，使这座城市变得如此壮观（环境人文，2016） .因此，我同意 Calicott 的说法，因为正如珊瑚堡礁是由活的有机体构建的自然现象的组成部分一样，芝加哥也是人类构建的自然现象的组成部分。 环境问题代写
The environment is everything living around us, either living or non-living things. These range from chemical, physical, to all other natural. Or artificial forces that we interact with and have an impact on our lives. Some scientists consider humans to be outsiders of nature and every activity they do is harmful to nature. However, humans are dependent on non-humans and are still living organisms switching nature despite their ability to make conscious decisions. Therefore, human activities alter nature just as other organisms activities later nature. Therefore, the great Cora Reef is just as phenomenal as Chicago city. However, humans should be conscious to protect the environment to protect it for the sake of the future generation.
译文：环境是生活在我们周围的一切，无论是生物还是非生物。 这些范围从化学、物理到所有其他天然。 或者我们与之相互作用并对我们的生活产生影响的人造力量。 一些科学家认为人类是大自然的局外人，他们所做的每一项活动都对大自然有害。 然而，人类依赖于非人类，尽管他们有能力做出有意识的决定，但它们仍然是改变自然的生物。 因此，人类活动改变自然，就像其他生物活动后自然一样。 因此，伟大的科拉礁与芝加哥市一样非凡。 但是，人类应该有意识地保护环境，为了子孙后代而保护它。
Callicott, J.B., 1992. La Nature est morte, vive la nature!. Hastings Center Report, 22(5), pp.16-23.
Eakin, C.M., Lough, J.M. and Heron, S.F., 2009. Climate variability and change: monitoring data and evidence for increased coral bleaching stress. In Coral bleaching (pp. 41-67). Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Environmental Humanities. (2016).
Directed by U. SYDNEY. UNSW SYDNEY: UNSW SYDNEY.
Hughes, T. P., Day, J. C., & Brodie, J. (2015). Securing the future of the Great Barrier Reef. Nature Climate Change, 5(6), 508-511
Hull, R. B. (2018) “NATURE” in N Castree, M Hulme and J D. Proctor eds Companion to Envrioemnatl Studies, Routledge, 27-32
Sörlin, Sverker. 2018. Environment. Ebook. London, UK: Routledge.
Vining, J., Merrick, M.S. and Price, E.A., 2008. The distinction between humans and nature: Human perceptions of connectedness to nature and elements of the natural and unnatural. Human Ecology Review, pp.1-11.
WHITTEN, S., KROON, F.J., THORBURN, P. and SCHAFFELKE, B., 2016. Towards protecting the Great Barrier Reef from land-based pollution. Null. Global Change Biology 22(6): 1985-2002