Enzyme Applications in Industry
生物学essay代写 Dairy industry is known as the traditional user of enzymes. Renet is one of the best-known enzymes in dairy industry.
The dairy industry uses enzymes to breakdown lactose in milk, especially for those who suffer from lactose intolerance.
Explain in detail the enzymes involved, the reactions catalyzed, and the improvement in the product. 生物学essay代写
Dairy industry is known as the traditional user of enzymes. Renet is one of the best-known enzymes in dairy industry. Some other enzymes that are used frequently in dairy industry are lipase, lactase, and lysozyme.
Lactose refers to sugar in milk or other dairy products. Lactase is made within the small intestine and it helps in the digestion of lactose. Sometimes small intestine stops producing lactase that is used to digest lactose within the dairy milk which leads to lactose intolerance. So, the primary function of lactase is to break down the lactose which exists in our food so that our body can easily absorb it.
By structure, lactose is a disaccharide sugar which is further composed of two sugars galactose a six-sided molecule and glucose another six-sided molecule. This lactose is broken down into two monosaccharide components. Sucrose is another sugar made up of fructose and glucose which makes it a five-sided molecule. The conversion of lactose into glucose and galactose is catalyzed by lactase (Whitehurst & Law, n.d.).
Discuss why they are being used – more efficient, higher yields or less waste?
Lactase is a transmembrane protein found in enterocytes or intestinal epithelial cells. Lactase is used in the dairy industry for the more efficient digestion among the people with lactose intolerance. When lactase breaks lactose into galactose and glucose, these constituent sugars are used in ATP manufacturing and also used in cellular processes. Some people face lactose intolerance, therefore they need to intake lactose-free milk. For this purpose, lactase is already added to the milk. This lactase then breaks the lactose into galactose and glucose which are then easier to absorb. If this lactose is not broken down by lactase in lactose-intolerant people it goes into the large intestine. In the large intestine, a high concentration of lactose causes an osmotic gradient. As a result, a large volume of water goes into the gut. This excess water causes diarrhea and sometimes cramping. 生物学essay代写
Moreover, if lactose is not broken in the small intestine it is consumed by bacteria in the large intestine. Some of these bacteria instigate a sugar fermentation process and produce ATP. The large gaseous products are produced as a result of fermentation such as carbon dioxide, methane and hydrogen. Around 65 percent of human beings and all mammals experience this reduced lactase biosynthesis after weaning. Only 35 percent of people have small intestine which produces lactase thus they keep on consuming milk throughout their life. Such people have lactase persistence, thereby, lactase is produced continuously at high levels. Sixty-five percent of people stop consuming milk after weaning. Therefore, the energy that was being used in the biosynthesis of lactase has now been saved which refers to cellular energetics (Enzymes and Reaction Rates, n.d.).
What was used before enzymes if anything?
Lactase is an essential enzyme without any alternate to breakdown lactose into sugars. However, people with lactose intolerance were using almond milk, and coconut milk etc. that has a look and feel of a milk with less proteins and more fiber and vitamin D (DNAFit, n.d.).
Risk to living systems
Lactase supplements often lead to the development of rashes, shortness of breath, hives, dizziness, rapid heart rate, etc. Thus, they should be taken after consulting a doctor. Lactose intolerance can be managed by taking small portions of dairy products, by taking lactase enzyme tablets, by taking probiotics and other lactose-free products (Michigan State University, n.d.).
The importance of lactase can never be undermined as it is the most imperative enzyme which helps in the digestion of dairy products. There are many factors behind lactase deficiency besides weaning. It is also caused due to celiac disease, gastroenteritis and Crohn’s disease. Sometimes a prolonged intake of antibiotics, chemotherapy and radiation, or malnutrition also cause decreased production of lactase in the human body. Another reason for lactose intolerance could be an irreversible genetic disorder which is called congenital alactasia. In this disease, an infant does not possess the ability to produce lactase. Such infants are not given breastfeed. They do not consume regular formula milk. They intake a special kind of lactose-free formula which is easily digestible (Canadian Society of Intestinal Research, n.d.).
Discuss the impact of the process on society. 生物学essay代写
Today, lactase is being utilized commercially in the preparation of lactose-free products, or dairy products. Contemporarily, it is being used in the manufacturing of ice creams and makes a product creamy and sweet. Lactase is used in yogurt production. The bacterial cells in the small intestine protect the bacterial lactase physically from the acidic secretions of the stomach. They are also facilitated by the buffering ability of the yogurt. The flavored lactase has low lactase activity as compared to the unflavored yogurts. That is why the lactose in yogurt is digested efficiently than the lactose in other dairy products (Savaiano, 2014).
Concern on Bio-application
Lactase supplements have made life easier for the people who are suffering from lactose intolerance. The consumption of dairy products is necessary to meet the nutrient requirement of the body. Milk prevents osteoporosis in old age. It protects a person from various diseases due to its high level of natural nutrients. Lactase enzyme protect people from indigestion of milk.
Canadian Society of Intestinal Research. (n.d.). Lactose Intolerance. Retrieved from https://badgut.org/information-centre/a-z-digestive-topics/lactose-intolerance/
Enzymes and Reaction Rates. (n.d.). Retrieved from https://www2.nau.edu/lrm22/lessons/enzymes/enzymes.html#:~:text=With%20the%20aid%20of%20the,products%20and%20are%20lactose%20intolerant.
Michigan State University. (n.d.). Cell Biology. Retrieved from https://www.evo-ed.org/Pages/Lactase/cellbio.html#:~:text=The%20enzyme%20Lactase%20is%20a,manufacturing%20and%20other%20cellular%20processes.
Savaiano, D. (2014). Lactose digestion from yogurt: mechanism and relevance. The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition.
Whitehurst , R., & Law , B. (n.d.). Application of Enzymes in the Dairy Industry. Retrieved from Creative Enzymes: https://www.creative-enzymes.com/resource/application-of-enzymes-in-the-dairy-industry_65.html