Research how our eyes work

Research代写 Findings of the present study showed a negative relationship between the distance from the display (cm) and time (s).

Introduction Research代写

Understanding how our eyes work is vital to human survival due to important human activities such as navigation that is crucial to our safety. According to Anstis, Verstraten, and Mather (1998), motion after-effect is a powerful illusion of the eye caused by extensive exposure to motion in the opposite direction. A great example is when an individual looks at a waterfall for a short period of time then they switch to the rocks beside the waterfall. Arguably, the rocks will appear to be moving upwards.

The motion aftereffect has been attributed to several phenomena. Research代写

Some scientists argue that the neurons triggered by the illusion are usually fatigued and the dormant neurons are activated to see a totally different motion. Others have appealed that motion aftereffect is a case of error correction among neurons because human beings are not used to looking at one item for long periods of time. It is for this reason that the neurons affected by motion aftereffect feel the need to error-correct or coding optimization, or both (Anstis, Verstraten, and Mather, 1998). Apart from the motion aftereffect and previously established color aftereffect, the study will attempt to argue the existence of an interocular transfer of the motion aftereffect.Research代写**范文

 The existing rationale is that the neurons in the brain are located in the dominant side of an individual’s body and they determine how long and how strong the subject experience motion aftereffect from either eyes (Antis, Verstraten, and Mather 1998). Nevertheless, there also exists a lack of interocular transfer before the signal from the two eyes converge with the same neurons. Additionally, the lack of transfer shows that the transfer needs to happen only when the information converges. There is also the argument that the consequence of adopting detectors may be present but not in retinal motion.

The existence of interocular transfer has its theoretical motivations Research代写

Howard, Vorobyov, and Sengpiel (2009) observed that when a stimulus is presented to one eye and then the other, an interocular transfer, which is the process of adaptation, can be observed. The motion aftereffect is observed when a high-contrast movement can still be noticed moving in the opposite direction of the flow of the actual movement. The experiments set up to give a partial answer as to where the neurons could be located.Research代写**范文

Notably, there are several experiments set up to show the extent of motion aftereffect. The experiment is an extension of the traditional motion aftereffect experiment by Barlow, H., & Brindley (1963) of which the phenomena move beyond the aftereffect but also the transfer of information between neurons.

However, what is not known is if there are certain attributes people possess Research代写

Such as the size of their ring finger in relation to their pointer finger, their vision correction, or their position in the room that affect their dominant side and the interocular transfer phenomenon. In this experiment, we are set to determine whether the distance from the screen where the stimulus is presented has an effect on the duration of interocular transfer during MAE.Research代写**范文

Our hypothesis is that depending on the participant’s distance from the screen, there will be a difference between how the left and the right eye perceive motion after-effect. The dominant eye of the participant will experience a longer motion after-effect, while the non-dominant eye will experience a shorter MAE. Furthermore, if the participant sits close to the screen then he/she will experience a stronger motion-after effect.

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Research Methods Research代写

Participants

The 41 participants were college students with an age range between 20 and 30 years, a mean age of 21.93 years and a standard deviation of 2.28. The students were recruited in class. Of the participants, 28 were female and 13 were male.

In addition, other physical characteristics were noted. Research代写

First, the students answered whether or not they had vision correction and 7 students wore contact lenses. Forty-six percent of the students wore glasses. Thirty-four percent did not have any glasses, contacts, or corrective procedures performed. One student, however, did have laser surgery, which reflects only 0.02% of the participants. In addition to vision correction status, the dominant hand data was also recorded. Only 10% of the participants were left-handed, while the remaining 90% were right-handed. No ambidextrous individuals were recorded.Research代写**范文

Finally, the participants were asked to compare their ring finger length to the length of their index finger. A majority of the participants’ ring fingers were longer in comparison to their pointer fingers. A chart in the results section will be provided as well as the percentages.

Seating arrangements played a role in this study as well. The students were distributed in the first six rows, with slightly more students sitting in the back and to the sides than students in the middle, which could play have an effect in the result of the experiment. The students sitting at the back could experience a shorter aftereffect.Research代写**范文

Participation was not compulsory. Students were informed that they have the right to refuse to participate. Of all the number of students in class, 41 chose to participate in the study voluntarily.

Equipment Research代写

The equipment involved a questionnaire for the students to fill out by pencil or pen. In addition, the slides for the experiment were available in a PPT file stored on the researcher’s laptop, were projected onto a screen at the front center of the room. The size of the rectangular screen was measured in centimeters. It is 257 cm horizontal and 195 cm vertical. The distance to each seat was calculated by the function , where L is the the length from the display and W is width from center, both measured in centimeters. Each participant was given a participant ID indicated on the front page to stay anonymous. At the end of the experiment, the teaching assistant collected all the questionnaires.

Design and Procedure Research代写

Five experiments were held to test for motion aftereffect and interocular transfer by showing moving sine gratings to the participants. For all five experiments, the length of time that the subjects viewed the high-contrast pattern remains the same. However, the eye that was asked to be covered over the course of the experiment varied. The fifth experiment served as the control experiment, where both eyes were uncovered.Research代写**范文

In the first experiment, participants were asked to cover their left eye with their hand and only leaving the right eye open.

Participants kept looking with the right eye until the adapter disappeared after 60 seconds. Then, they need to fixate their eye on the red dot in the middle of the screen with moving sine wave gratings around it. This stage lasts for 60 seconds. After a brief tone, the experimenter changes the slide to a non-moving checkerboard pattern with a red dot fixated in the middle. A timer was displayed at the bottom left of the screen for the participant to check and write down the duration the MAE lasted in seconds. The strength of the initial MAE was also recorded in four levels: vivid, clearly visible, barely noticeable, and absent.Research代写**范文

The second experiment follows the procedure of the first experiment except this time the right eye was covered, leaving the left eye open. However, the procedures of experiment 3 and 4 were different from 1 and 2. Participants were asked to switch eyes as soon as the adapter disappeared. If the right eye was covered during adaptation, then cover up your right eye and look at the red dot with your left eye instead when the adaptor disappears, and vice versa. In the fifth control experiment, both eyes were open during adaptation stage, and participants kept looking with both eyes when the adaptor disappeared.

Independent variables Research代写

The independent variables were the stimulus that the students viewed. Patterns/stimulus were used to produce the aftereffect for the participants so they could record the length of time depending on which eye was covered in each experiments.

Dependent variable Research代写**范文

The dependent variable is the duration of time the motion aftereffects are observed, which was recorded by the participants for the left eye scenario and the right eye scenario. Dependent variable varies across participants, because not everyone has the same duration of MAE. The time of the effect is recorded by participants themselves.

Data Analysis and Results Research代写

The Correlation Between Distance from the Screen and Duration of Motion After-Effect

Pearson-product correlation analysis was conducted in excel to determine whether there is a correlation between the distance from the screen and the duration of motion-aftereffect in each of the five experiments conducted (time 1(s) to time 5(s)). The independent variable was the distance from the display which was measured in centimeters while the dependent variable was time measured in seconds. Correlation analysis was performed because both the independent and the dependent variables were measured on continuous interval levels. The results of correlation analysis are displayed in Table 1 below.Research代写**范文

According to the results of correlation analysis in Table 1 below. Research代写

There is a negative relationship between Distance from Display (cm) and Time (s) 1 (r = -0.21). This indicates when Distance from Display increases, time of motion-aftereffect decreases, and vice versa. Similarly, there is a negative correlation between Distance from Display (cm) and Time (s) 2 (r = -0.34). Between Distance from Display (cm) and Time (s) 3 a negative association (r = -0.16) was established. Moreover, Distance from Display (cm) and Time (s) 4 showed a negative correlation (-0.36). Lastly, a negative correlation (-0.19) was also found between Distance from Display (cm) and Time (s) 5. All five experiments have shown that as the distance from the display (cm) increases, the duration of the motion after-effect decreases. While a reduction of the distance from the display (cm) increases the duration of the motion after-effect.Research代写**范文

 The correlation between the distance from the screen and the duration of motion after-effect can be shown using the Excel scatterplot. Figure 1 to Figure 4, and Figure 5 below shows a negative correlation between the distance from the display (cm) and Time (s) 1, Time (s) 1, Time (s) 2, Time (s) 3, Time (s) 4, and Time (s) 5.

Table 1 Research代写

The Correlation Between Distance From The Screen and the Duration of Motion After-Effect

  Distance from Display (cm) Time (s) 1 Time (s) 2 Time (s) 3 Time (s) 4 Time (s) 5
Distance from Display (cm) 1
Time (s) 1 -0.213465179 1
Time (s) 2 -0.341078116 0.663362 1
Time (s) 3 -0.159086631 0.494615 0.465081 1
Time (s) 4 -0.362192942 0.6086 0.556953 0.704267 1
Time (s) 5 -0.194559086 0.534822 0.580006 0.520211 0.568671 1

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Figure 1: Correlation between the distance from the display (cm) and Time (s) 1

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Figure 2: Correlation between distance from display (cm) and Time (s) 2

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Figure 3: Correlation between distance from display (cm) and Time (s) 3

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Figure 4: Correlation between distance from display (cm) and Time (s) 3

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Figure 5: Correlation between distance from display (cm) and Time (s) 5

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Distance from Display and Dominant Eye Research代写

To determine whether there are differences in the Distance from Display (cm) among different groups of dominant eyes (Right, Left, or Both), single factor ANOVA analysis was carried out in Excel (see Table 2 and Table 3 below). One-way ANOVA carried out to determine whether the Distance from Display (cm) is significant across different groups of dominant eyes (Right, Left, or Both) revealed a statistically significant difference between dominant eye groups (F (1,78) = 470.84, p = .00).Research代写**范文

Table 2 Research代写

ANOVA Results

ANOVA
Source of Variation SS df MS F P-value F crit
Between Groups 6532386.43 1.00 6532386.43 470.84 0.00 3.96
Within Groups 1082155.99 78.00 13873.79
Total 7614542.42 79.00

 

 

 

 

 

To confirm the ANOVA results, the clustered column was created in Excel (see Figure 6). From Figure 6 below, it shows that participants whose right eye is dominant have the highest sum of the distance from the display (13189.15239 cm), followed by those with a left dominant eye (9728.095076 cm).  Those whose both eyes were identified as dominant had the lowest sum of the distance from the display (397.6443134 cm).Research代写**范文

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Figure 6. Dominant eye and distance from the display

Comparison of Different Experiments’ Strength and After Effect Time Research代写

Experiment 1 and 3

Figure 7 and Figure 8 below shows a comparison of the strength and the after-effect time. As shown in Figure 7 and 8, the Vivid strength group participants in experiment 1 had longer after-effect time compared to those in experiment 3 while the Clear and Barely strength groups in experiment 3 had longer after-effect time than those of experiment 1. This indicates that interocular transfer has an affect on the duration of the motion after-effect but not on the strength of the after-effect. A paired two-sample t-test analysis was also conducted on Excel for experiment 3.Research代写**范文

Results have shown that there is a very weak negative correlation ( -0.11) between the after-effect time and the strength in experiment 1, indicating there is very little to none correlation between time and strength of motion-aftereffect. On the other hand, a paired two-sample t-test analysis was also conducted on Excel for experiment 3. Results indicate that there is a moderately weak negative correlation ( -0.32) between the after-effect time and the strength in experiment 1, which is the similar result to experiment 1.

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Figure 7: Strength and After Effect Time (Experiment 1)

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Table 3 Research代写
 

Figure 8: Strength and After Effect Time (Experiment 3)

 

 

Table 3

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

  Variable 1 Variable 2
Mean 2.487805 5.195122
Variance 2.006098 9.810976
Observations 41 41
Pearson Correlation -0.32066
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
Df 40
t Stat -4.52722
P(T<=t) one-tail 2.63E-05
t Critical one-tail 1.683851
P(T<=t) two-tail 5.27E-05
t Critical two-tail 2.021075

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table4 Research代写
Table 4

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

  Variable 1 Variable 2
Mean 1.804878049 10.39024
Variance 0.51097561 9.093902
Observations 41 41
Pearson Correlation -0.114560775
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
df 40
t Stat -17.29881161
P(T<=t) one-tail 1.79419E-20
t Critical one-tail 1.683851013
P(T<=t) two-tail 3.58838E-20
t Critical two-tail 2.02107539

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Experiment 2 and 4

Figure 9 and Figure 10 below are a comparison of the strength and the after-effect time. The Vivid strength group participants in experiment 2 had longer after-effect time compared to those in the experiment 4. Also, the Clear strength group experiment 2 had a longer after-effect time than those of experiment 4. However, the Barely strength group in experiment 2 had a shorter after-effect time than those of experiment 4.Research代写**范文

For experiment 2, a paired two-sample t-test analysis was also conducted on Excel. From the graphs, we can see a weak positive correlation (+0.26) between the time and the strength in experiment 2 (see Table 5). On the other hand, a paired two-sample t-test analysis was also conducted on Excel for experiment 4. Results indicates that there is a moderately weak negative correlation ( -0.42) between the after-effect time and the strength in experiment 1 (see Table 6).

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Figure 9: Strength and After Effect Time (Experiment 2).

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Figure 10: Strength and After Effect Time (Experiment 4).

Table 5 Research代写
Table 5

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

  Variable 1 Variable 2
Mean 1.6097561 9.02439
Variance 0.54390244 5.67439
Observations 41 41
Pearson Correlation -0.26482598
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
df 40
t Stat -17.7568397
P(T<=t) one-tail 7.0952E-21
t Critical one-tail 1.68385101
P(T<=t) two-tail 1.419E-20
t Critical two-tail 2.02107539

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Table 6 Research代写
Table 6

t-Test: Paired Two Sample for Means

  Variable 1 Variable 2
Mean 2.43902439 5.682927
Variance 1.902439024 9.821951
Observations 41 41
Pearson Correlation -0.423883361
Hypothesized Mean Difference 0
df 40
t Stat -5.294856185
P(T<=t) one-tail 2.30383E-06
t Critical one-tail 1.683851013
P(T<=t) two-tail 4.60765E-06
t Critical two-tail 2.02107539

 

Discussion and Implication Research代写

The current study was conducted to establish whether there is a relationship between the distance from the screen and the duration of motion after-effect. The after-effect is a sensory experience taking place after a long exposure to one sensory stimulus that changes how human beings experience other stimuli after the extended exposure (Palumbo, D’Ascenzo, & Tommasi, 2017). Findings of the present study showed a negative relationship between the distance from the display (cm) and time (s). This means the increased distance from the display decreases the time taken to respond to a stimulus.Research代写**范文

Additionally, in the present study, one-way ANOVA analysis conducted to determine whether the Distance from Display (cm) is significant across different groups of dominant eyes (Right, Left, or Both) revealed a statistically significant difference between these groups. It was established that participants whose right eye is dominant have the highest average of the distance from the display, followed by those with a left dominant eye.Research代写**范文

Those whose both eyes as dominant had the lowest sum of the distance from the display. From these findings, the right eye is dominant. Therefore, the hypothesis that the dominant eye of the participant will experience a longer motion after-effect, while the non-dominant eye will experience a shorter motion aftereffect is supported.

References Research代写

Anstis, S., Verstraten, F. A. J., & Mather, G. (1998). The Motion Aftereffect. Trends of Cognitive Sciences, 2(3), 111-117.

Barlow, H., & Brindley. (1963). Inter-ocular Transfer of Movement After-effects during Pressure Blinding of the Stimulated Eye. Nature, 200(4913), 1347.

Howarth, C. M., Vorobyov, V., & Sengpiel, F. (2009). Interocular transfer of adaptation in the primary visual cortex. Cerebral Cortex, 19(8), 1835–1843.

Palumbo, R., D’Ascenzo, S., & Tommasi, L. (2017). Editorial: High-Level Adaptation and Aftereffects. Frontiers in psychology, 8, 217. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2017.00217

 

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