Essay on Johannes Kepler

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Johannes Kepler代写 Many of his astronomical writing became the foundation of the subsequent studies in the field of astronomy.

Introduction

(Kepler.nasa.gov, 2016) Johannes Kepler was born in the16th century when people thought that solar system and the planet in it revolved in a circular orbit around the earth. He was a towering figure in the field of scientific renaissance and his work helped connect between archaic cosmology and the today’s world-view.  He established three laws of planetary motion when working on heliocentric theory propounded by Polish astronomer Nicolaus Copernicus. He also assisted in correcting the fault in Copernicus’s theory of astronomy. (Fitzpatrick, 2015) He stood by the fact that the planets orbited on their own path with their own axis and the path is not a perfect circle but rather elliptical which varied apparently with each revolution.  Johannes Kepler代写

He was also for the idea that the planet orbited around the sun contrary to the previous belief. His description of the planetary motion around the sun was referred to as Kepler’s Laws. Using his laws he described how the planets move around the sun and also helped in determining the orbits of the satellites and space stations. Kepler is also considered the father of modern optics when he correctly described physics and physiology of vision. He used his knowledge to make great contributions to the making of the refracting telescope. The view of the universe, according to him was a perfect master plan of God who he said is the perfect artist and a mathematician.

The Kepler’s Laws were summarized as:

1.That all planets in the solar system follow elliptical orbit to revolve around the sun;

2.The time taken to traverse an arc of the elliptical orbit is proportional to the area of the part bordering the sun and that arc;

3.The harmonic law which states that squares of the planets’ periodic time and the cubes of the radii of their orbits have the exact relationship;

Biographical information  Johannes Kepler代写

Johannes was born in December 1571 at Weil der Stadt in Swabia in the south west of Germany. He was from a poor humble family (Wikipedia, 2015). They were left by their father when Kepler was in teenage years. He lived with his mother Katharina who was a meddlesome disagreeable woman who was even charged with being a witch. His early childhood is marked by unhappiness, weakness, and occasional sicknesses. Beside living unstable life, Kepler was an intelligent young man which could not go unnoticed.

He benefited from the scholarship from Dukes of Württemberg, a group that gave educational assistance to less privileged children but intellectually gifted like Kepler. He later joined the Protestant University of Tubingen on a scholarship graduating in 1587. He continued with his studies to acquire masters in 1591. It is when he was at Tubingen he created interest to study astronomy. Michael Maestlin introduced Kepler to astronomy through Ptolemaic and Copernican theories on astronomy (Math.wichita.edu, 2016).

Kepler became the professor of mathematics at a seminary in Graz, Austria. At the same time, he continued to study astronomy and astrology from which he wrote the first defense of the Copernican theory. At that time Lutheran Church founded by Martin Luther hated the theory and did not accept it whereas the Catholic Church termed the theory unorthodox (Bixler, 2016).

Contributions and Impacts to Astronomy and Science  Johannes Kepler代写

Kepler became the first scientist to publish a defense of the heliocentric theory of Copernicus.

Through his first major publication on astronomy, Mysterium Cosmographicum in 1596, Kepler tried to argue his perspective on the six known planets and how far they were from the sun using five Platonic solids. This publication was the only ever published at that period with the aim to support the Copernican theory. Though Mysterium had flaws of the main thesis, the writing is considered to have made a great impact in the growth of astronomy because it was able to correct defects of the Ptolemaic theory from Copernican theory (Astronomy, 2012).

(Fitzpatrick, 2015) He was able to explain that the planets revolve at different speed depending on how far it is from the sun. Johannes used Danish astronomers Tycho Brahe observations on astronomy and planets to analyze the orbit of the Mars. He was able to discover that Mars did not move in a perfect circle around the sun, contrary to the common belief then. He established that there were times when Mars is close to the sun than others. Moreover, Mars movement speed increased with distance from the sun. In 1602, he came up with his second law that the speed of the planet changes at each moment such that the time between two positions is always proportional to the area swept out on the orbit between these positions.

Johannes Kepler代写
Johannes Kepler代写

Kepler was able to prove wrong the previous believe that planets move around the earth in a circle. 

He discovered that planets use elliptical orbits to revolve around the sun. Kepler started a study to calculate the orbit followed by Mars. He assumed egg-shaped orbit and used geometrical rate law. He had failed in his any trials but eventually, he was able to explain that Mars follows an elliptical path around the sun. Thus he was able to derive his first law of planetary motion: that the planets orbit the sun at the center in ellipses.

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When he was writing Harmonices Mundi (The Harmony of the World), he discovered his third law of planetary motion. The book was published in 1619. Kepler was trying to explain harmony in nature in terms of music. It was not until the 1660s that scientist realized the importance of his writing.

Johannes Kepler代写
Johannes Kepler代写

He wrote a book which was highly regarded in the field of astronomy.

The book, Epitome Astronomiae Copernicanae was published in 1617, 1620 and 1621. The book was about the universe and their motion around the sun. It also explained all the Kepler’s law. He extended his laws to explain the same phenomena about other planets. These laws formed the basis of the modern astronomy and physics. Modern scientist found this work important in the contemporary scientific research in astronomy and physics (Quantumfreak.com, 2015).

Johannes Kepler also laid the basis on which the modern optics developed. He began researching on optics in 1600 and published his book on the same in 1604. The book he called The Optical Part of Astronomy Kepler’s perspectives and findings from his research on optics. He formulated the law that the light intensity decreases with the square of the distance; explanation reflection by flat and curved mirrors; and astronomical implications of optics. This book is highly regarded by the scholar of optics as it built the foundation to its development.

Johannes Kepler代写
Johannes Kepler代写

He wrote the most important book in astronomy.

The ten years working on the book titled Astronomia nova (New Astronomy) focused on the Mars and how it moved on its orbit around the sun. The book brought together two laws of the planetary motions and more support and explanations about the heliocentric theory. It is in that book he expounded on the idea of the planets moving in an elliptical orbit with the speed varying in apparent position and distance of the sun. He also introduced the concept of the attractive virtue of the earth which he likened to the magnetic field. This magnetism, according to Kepler, was mutual and proportional to the size of the planet or any heavenly body. This idea was later expanded by Isaac Newton on the forces of gravity.

Kepler became the first person in 1604 to correctly establish the working and structure of the human eye.

He became the first person to use the term “camera obscura” which means that when light rays are projected on an opposite screen through an opening the rays reverse to produce an inverted image (YouTube, 2015). He extended his principle to study how the human eye works. He established that the eye lens invert the image on the retina. Through this discovery, Kepler laid a platform on which the field of ophthalmologic optics was developed. This knowledge was later applied to explain central visual acuity, refraction errors, and adaption in darkness and visual field.

Johannes Kepler代写
Johannes Kepler代写

He still major improvements on a refracted telescope to and invented Keplerian telescope in 1604. In his research, he gave the correct explanation on convex and concave lenses could correct presbyopia and myopia. Later years he explained how double-convex converging lenses and double-concave diverging lenses combine to form Galilean telescope. He made few innovations on Galilean telescope using two convex lenses to achieve higher magnification.

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Kepler also made great contributions to the scientific revolution.

He published a table for recording observations of stars and planets. The Rudolphine tables were published in 1627, which were based on the work of Tycho Brahe. The tables were correct on many stars with varied errors which were acceptable in that era. This was an achievement in star observation. His catalogs were considered the best in explaining the corrective factors for atmospheric refraction. Johannes wrote a novel titled The Dream (Somnium) in 1634 which was based on science fiction a journey to the moon. Him being the founder of celestial mechanics and optics, he played a key role in the scientific revolution of the world. His work also gave a better platform on which great scientists of the future such as Isaac Newton came to be.

Conclusion  Johannes Kepler代写

Johannes’s extensive inputs through research to astronomy and solar system have gone beyond the renaissance period. His creativity and innovative contributions laid a foundation to the modern scientific revolution. The areas of his research that impacted on science include physics, crystallography, and optics. His exploration of how light travel through lenses, how it is reflected and refracted in different environmental conditions, helped explain how human eyes functions. This knowledge is also important in today’s research on physics and vision corrections.

Many of his astronomical writing became the foundation of the subsequent studies in the field of astronomy. Today universe explorers like NASA use his solar system research to advance their research of the space. The modern telescopes also borrow its technology from Kepler contributions.

Isaac Newton also borrowed a lot from the work of Kepler on solar system motion in his book New Astronomy. He introduced the earth attraction which he termed it attractive virtue like magnetism.

His research on optics laid a foundation for modern-day physics on optics. In his book titled The Optical Part of Astronomy Kepler formulated the law of light and how it decreases with the square of the distance. Modern scholars were able to build their theories based on his initial work.

References  Johannes Kepler代写

Johannes Kepler代写
Johannes Kepler代写

Kepler.nasa.gov. (2016). Kepler: Johannes Kepler. [online] Available at: http://kepler.nasa.gov/Mission/JohannesKepler/#keplersites [Accessed 16 May 2018].

Math.wichita.edu. (2016). Kepler. [online] Available at: http://www.math.wichita.edu/history/men/kepler.html [Accessed 16 May 2018].

Astronomy, S. (2012). Johannes Kepler Biography. [online] Space.com. Available at: http://www.space.com/15787-johannes-kepler.html [Accessed 16 May 2018].

Bixler, S. (2016). Kepler. [online] Math.wichita.edu. Available at: http://www.math.wichita.edu/history/men/kepler.html [Accessed 16 May 2018].

Fitzpatrick, R. (2015). Kepler’s Model of the Solar System. [online] Farside.ph.utexas.edu. Available at: http://farside.ph.utexas.edu/Books/Syntaxis/Almagest/node5.html [Accessed 16 May 2018].

Wikipedia. (2015). Johannes Kepler. [online] Available at: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Johannes_Kepler [Accessed 16 May 2018].

YouTube. (2015). Black Body Radiation and Curves – Stars X1 – Astronomy at West. [online] Available at: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=esipXvT876E [Accessed 16 May 2018 ].

Quantumfreak.com. (2015). Introduction to Blackbody Radiation. [online] Available at: http://quantumfreak.com/introduction-to-blackbody-radiation/ [Accessed 16 May 2018].

 

 

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