Physical Factors of Development Related to the Video

Potential Risks of Epidurals to Infants


药理学代写 There risks and complications that hospital births using epidurals and injection with synthetics oxytocin that most pregnant…

There risks and complications that hospital births using epidurals and injection with synthetics oxytocin that most pregnant mothers are not made aware. In U.S there are only less than 1 percent homebirths, and the rest are hospital births. That means epidural is widely used U.S hospitals as the main anesthetic during labor regardless of whether it is virginal birth or caesarian.

译文:使用硬膜外麻醉和注射合成催产素注射会导致医院分娩的风险和并发症,大多数孕妇对此并没有意识到。在美国,家庭出生率不到1%,其余为医院出生。这意味着硬膜外麻醉在美国分娩时被广泛用作主要麻醉剂,无论是初生还是剖腹产。 药理学代写

A survey called Listening to Mothers II found that over 75 percent of pregnant women had undergone epidural. Out of the 75 percent, 71 percent of women had virginal birth (Declercq, Sakala, Corry, &Applebaum, 2007). While the western world’s frequent use of epidurals may ease childbirth, it also serves as a potential risk factor in the physical and cognitive development of the infant.


A study by Murray, Dolby, Nation, and Thomas, (1981) was conducted to ascertain the risks epidural drugs pose to the newborns and the mother. The study found that the effect of epidural injections on the newborn was intense on the first day. Although after a few days there were observed behavioral changes, an infant undergoing medication showed poor state of the organization. Those babies whose mothers did not receive medication during birth were found to be alert, connecting, and orienting well to the environment whereas the mothers were more responsive to the babies.


译文:Murray,Dolby,Nation和Thomas于1981年进行了一项研究,以确定硬膜外药物对新生儿和母亲造成的风险。研究发现,硬膜外注射对新生儿的影响在第一天就很强烈。尽管几天后观察到行为改变,但正在接受药物治疗的婴儿表现出较差的组织状态。发现那些母亲在分娩时未服药的婴儿则保持警觉,与外界保持良好的联系并易于适应环境,而母亲对婴儿的反应更敏感。 药理学代写

Therefore, it is evident that the drugs administered to the mother also enter the bloodstream of the newborn. The levels vary depending on the amount in the mother’s bloodstream. The problem arises because the newborn immune system is not mature and can take long before epidural drugs are eliminated in its blood. The drugs can compromise the fetal blood and oxygen supply as well as decreasing the heart rate. The modern researchers have therefore found less alertness and inability to orient and less mature motor abilities in the first month of the newborn baby. The effects are proportional to the amount of bupivacaine injected into the mother.


References 药理学代写

Declercq, E. R., Sakala, C., Corry, M. P., & Applebaum, S. (2007). Listening to mothers II: Report of the second national US survey of women’s childbearing experiences. The Journal of Perinatal Education, 16(4), 9-14.

Murray, A. D., Dolby, R. M., Nation, R. L., & Thomas, D. B. (1981). Effects of epidural anesthesia on newborns and their mothers. Child development, 71-82.