The effectiveness of Social Media Influencer Marketing in encouraging Consumer Impulse Purchasing Behaviour in Asia Pacific Region.
营销学论文代写 This dissertation explores the correlation between social media influencer marketing and its effectiveness in encouraging consumer…
This dissertation explores the correlation between social media influencer marketing and its effectiveness in encouraging consumer impulse purchasing behaviour in Asia Pacific Region. This research will start by identifying the key generations affected by social media influencer marketing and evaluate the business outcome from integrating social media influencer marketing into company business model. This research will utilise SOR theory as a method to understand impulse purchasing. The Stimuli Organism Response (SOR) theory explains that when an individual is exposed to environmental stimuli can trigger cognitive and emotional responses thereby influencing their subsequent actions (Cheung et al, 2017).
This research will exemplify Instagram influencers’ marketing tactics as the stimuli (S), the “credibility” traits of the influencer as the organism (O) and impulse purchasing by the consumers as the response (R). The benefits of social media influencer marketing for fashion buyers and merchandisers would also be investigated.
This research takes on an interpretivist philosophy, to gain an understanding of different perceptions that could contribute the phenomenon of social media influencer marketing induced impulse purchasing. Prior to primary research, academic literature was reviewed to gain background understanding surrounding generation Z and Y consumers, social medial influencer marketing business outcomes, social media influencer marketing strategies, influencer credibility traits, impulse purchasing habits and fashion buying benefits of social media influencer marketing. An inductive approach was adopted using qualitative and quantitative primary research to validate existing academic literature surrounding the topic.
Primary research consists of a questionnaire (quantitative) and three semi- structured interviews (qualitative). 营销学论文代写
The participants of the questionnaire consist of 102 Asian Pacific generation Z and Y individuals, and the interview explores the perspectives of an industry expert, influencer, and generation Z consumer. The quantitative data of this research would be organized through graphs and charts whilst the qualitative data would be coded and analyzed.
After comparing primary and secondary findings it was identified that marketing through influencers on social media platforms especially Instagram, can effectively attract the attention of generations Z and Y. Their preference for Instagram is because of their fondness of visually driven content. The success of Instagram influencer marketing in targeting generation Z and Y was further validated through the business outcomes as well. As both the return-on-investment value and sales revenue increased exponentially for companies that integrate this marketing strategy. Aside from the visual nature of Instagram, the “credibility” traits of the influencer also impact greatly on the impulse purchasing behaviour of followers.
Credibility implies a communicator’s appealing traits which evoke the receiver’s acceptance of a message (Ohanian, 1990).
Therefore, it was determined through primary research that traits such as attractiveness, trustworthiness and expertise were all present within the follower’s perception of their favourite influencer. This finding corroborated academic literature that consumers are more likely to have loyalty toward an influencer with these traits (Weismueller et al, 2020). 营销学论文代写
The traits should always induce a positive attitude among the consumers because when consumers have a positive attitude towards their favourite influencer, the sense of liking would simultaneously link to the product or service recommended by that influencer which increases the likelihood of impulse purchasing. Responses are attitudinal and are dependent on the stimuli (social media influencer marketing strategy) and organism (credibility traits). Therefore, to encourage impulse purchasing to occur the response of the consumer should be “positive”. Academic literature explained that fashion buyers can benefit greatly when range planning through influencer social media profiles. As, source shows that consumers purchasing intentions are now dictated by influencers.
This dissertation explores the consumer psychology and behaviour behind impulse purchasing acts that are induced by social media influencer marketing. The research was affected by the retrain of time and sample size due to COVID -19. Further research is recommended to investigate other factors that could impact on consumer impulse purchasing habit such as “endorsement” or “price” of a product, with a larger sample size of participants to increase the reliability and validity of the results.
List of Figures 营销学论文代写
Figure 2.1: Social Network Users in the Asia Pacific region by Platforms
Figure 2.2: ASOS Consumer Marketing Budget
Figure 2.3: SOR Framework applied to Social Media Marketing Activity
Figure 3.1: Research Onion
Figure 4.1: What is your age?
Figure 4.2: What is your gender?
Figure 4.3: Where are you from?
Figure 4.4: Which of these social media platforms do you use (Multiple choice)?
Figure 4.5: Do you prefer social media platform that are picture based or text based?
Figure 4.6: Have you ever made an impulse purchase when your favourite influencer used or recommended a product?
Figure 4.7: How often do you buy products recommended by your favourite influencer?
Figure 4.8: What influencer traits attracts you most? 营销学论文代写
Figure 4.9: Does hearing negative news about your influencer sway your decision in trusting that influencer?
Table 3.1: Questionnaire: Investigation into Social Media Influencers Marketing effectiveness in encouraging Consumer Impulse Purchasing Behaviour in Asia Pacific Region
Table 3.2: Interview Questions
Table 3.3: Research Methodology Framework
Table 5.1: Research Question and Aim
1.0 Introduction 营销学论文代写
Impulse purchasing or buying can be defined as “an unplanned, compelling, and hedonically complex purchasing behaviour (Chan, et al., 2017).” The action of impulse purchasing has been around for decades. In recent decades, impulse purchasing has manifested itself within social networking due to the surge in social networking habits (Dwivedi, et al., 2020). According to Saleh, impulse purchases represent almost 40% of all money spent on e-commerce, with consumers spending an average of 2000 USD annually (Saleh, 2020). The freedom from physical restrictions can explain the rise in online impulse purchasing that traditional physical shopping imposes, such as operating hours and travel distance (Naeem, 2020). In recent years, COVID-19 related health concerns also encouraged online impulse purchasing habits.
Social networking platforms such as Instagram and TikTok provide an optimal environment for influencers to encourage consumers to engage in impulse purchasing habits (Naeem, 2020). Instagram is a video and photo-sharing social media platform with a billion monthly active users (Kuligowski, 2020). The large number of active users, combined with the fact that consumers are enticed by visually driven content (Meredith, 2020), makes Instagram the most popular social media platform for influencers to engage with their audience. This is corroborated by Mediakix, with statistics stating that 89% of marketers say Instagram is an integral part of their influencer marketing strategy (Mediakix, 2019). Social media influencers (SMI) are individuals who have built a reputation for their knowledge and expertise on a specific topic and, in turn, acquired large numbers of followers (Influencer Marketing Hubs, 2022).
These influencers receive different products and services from brands to explore and evaluate, subsequently providing reviews for their followers (Hensel, 2010). 营销学论文代写
Social media influencers differ from traditional celebrities who gain their fame through music, acting or sports. SMI garner their fame by creating entertaining and enticing online content (Hensel, 2010). Social media influencers can be more effective in enhancing brands and delivering persuasive marketing messages at a fraction of the cost of traditional celebrities (Djafarova and Rushworth, 2017). Furthermore, consumers can relate better to influencers and perceive them as more authentic than a traditional celebrity (). With the rise of social media networking in recent years, influencers have become the predominant information source for consumers when they need reliable information about a specific product or service (Rodrigues et al., 2021).
In Asia pacific region (East Asia and South-East Asia), Instagram and TikTok have much higher engagement rates per post and conversion rates than other social media channels such as Facebook and Twitter, meaning visually driven social media platforms are preferred over conventional words posts only platforms. Understanding this trend, brands and marketers chose to merchandise their products and services through Instagram (Munnukka et al,2016). Furthermore, endorsing social media influencers to promote and market for them veering away from conventional advertising tactics (Rodrigues et al, 2021). In a survey conducted on 1500 internet users in Japan, more than 50% of generation Z and Y users, 38% of generation X and 11% of baby boomers seek inspiration from social media browsing for their next fashion purchase (Business Finland, 2021).
The survey categories the participants based on their generation. Generation Z (digital natives) are born after 1995
generation Y (millennials) are born between 1984 and 1995, generation X between 1965 and 1984 and lastly, baby boomers are born between 1946 and 1964 (Beresford Research, 2022). Although all age groups can be seen browsing social media platforms for inspiration, the dominant group that utilises social media platforms would be generations Z and Y (Kanokwan et al, 2021). 营销学论文代写
Numerous studies have explored the impact social media influencer has on followers’ psychological and behavioural habits (Chan et al, 2017). However, there have been limited studies on how Instagram as a social media platform can provide influencers with an environment to encourage consumers’ online impulse purchasing, especially within the Asia Pacific region. This platform and region-specific study can disclose vital insight for buyers and merchandisers. Understanding what factors drive impulsive purchasing on Instagram can help them determine the level of stock needed to buy for maximum profit while minimising the chances of left-over inventory.
The basis of this dissertation would orient around the theory of Stimulus – Organism- Response. The S-O-R theory has been used previously to study online impulse buying behaviour in other studies and has proven useful (Rahman et al., 2017). The power Instagram influencers have over their followers’ online impulse buying behaviour can be explained via the S-O-R theory, more specifically through the mediating effect of source credibility (Rahman et al., 2017).
The aim of this research is to determine the effectiveness of social media influencer marketing in encouraging impulse purchasing behaviour in generations y and z consumers in the Asia Pacific region. 营销学论文代写
Research Question: To what extent does social media influencer marketing have on encouraging consumer impulse purchasing in the Asian Pacific region?
The main objectives of this dissertation are:
- To examine the academic literature related to social media influencer marketing in fashionand how it can affect generations Z and Y.
- To analyse what “credibility” traits are most appealing to the generations z and y in the Asia Pacific region.
- To investigate how the SOR framework can explain the mental processes of consumer impulse purchasing through social media influencer marketing.
- To evaluate how monitoring “credible” social media influencers’ Instagram accounts, can benefit fashion buyers and merchandisers.
1.3 Research Design and Methodology 营销学论文代写
The research in this dissertation follows an interpretivist approach, meaning the research integrates human interests into a study and focuses on individuals’ beliefs and motivations to make sense of social phenomena and culture (Saunders et al, 2019). Taking an interpretivist approach can allow researchers and readers insight into the opinions and thought processes behind generation z and y consumers towards social media influencers. Furthermore, hoping to make sense of the social phenomenon of why some social media influencers can encourage “impulse” purchasing easier than others. The primary research in the dissertation follows both quantitative and qualitative methods.
The qualitative research was in the form of an interview drawing on questions inspired by a variety of academic literature reviews. The quantitative research method was a survey that provided a generalised opinion based on the topic from the target consumers. Compiling the data collected from both interviews and surveys would provide the most accurate understanding of the research topic. Thus, allowing the researchers to formulate the most accurate theories to explain the social construct.
1.4 Section Outlines 营销学论文代写
Section Two – Literature Review
The literature review section will explore and analyse an array of existing academic literature that relates to the surge of social media influencer marketing, the business outcome of SMI marketing, generation of consumers that are most affected by social media marketing (Z and Y), the Stimuli Organism Response (SOR) theory and how it explains the consumers’ psychological processing behind the success of social media influencer marketing strategy, and how SMI marketing can benefit fashion buying.
Section Three – Methodology
The methodology section explains the type of research design used in this dissertation and how it will be implemented. Outlining in detail the methods of primary data collections both qualitative and quantitative. The qualitative data would be collected through three slightly different semi-structured interviews to get the perspectives of consumers, influencers, and brand marketers. The quantitative data would be evaluated through charts created with the data compiled from the survey. The possible limitations of using these methods of data collection would be discussed.
Section Four – Research Findings and Analysis 营销学论文代写
This section presents all the data collected from the survey and the interviews. Highlighting the significant findings and key points which are prominent throughout the comparison of the two distinctive research methods.
Section Five – Discussion
The discussion compares the significant findings in the primary research with the findings from secondary sources in the literature review sections, and how it fits in with the aims and objectives of this dissertation. Furthermore, discussing what the findings mean for the fashion industry and more specifically fashion buyers. Lastly, identifying the limitations this research faced and how they can be minimised for future studies.
Section Six – Conclusion and Recommendations
This section summarises the significant outcomes this research discovered from examining the literature review and primary research. Suggestions for further research to be conducted in order to understand this topic more thoroughly.
2.0 Literature Review 营销学论文代写
In this decade, social media has seen an exponential increase in users globally. Asia received the most considerable user base growth with a 16.98% increase between the year 2019 to 2020 (Backlinko, 2021). A handful of social media users earned online fame by gaining a significant following by producing entertaining content and attractive social media profiles (Khamis, 2016). These social media users with a large number of followers are referred to as social media influencers (SMI). Researchers have discovered that SMI tends to have a strong influence over their followers’ decision-making process (Husain et al, 2016). Therefore, many brands and marketers began to devote their marketing strategies to social media.
An abundance of research has shown that social media marketing strategy if approached correctly can “…increase brand awareness and influence the buying decisions of followers” (Husain et al, 2016). Another study further corroborated this claim, as “…71% of consumers are likely to purchase products or services based on social media referral” (Khamis, 2016).
The effectiveness of social media influencer marketing encouraged brands and researchers to continue researching the opportunities within social media. 营销学论文代写
According to Dolega (2021) “97% of marketers are engaged in social media-related marketing strategies. However, 85% of them are not certain as to what tools may yield the best results”. Therefore, this literature review would review possible explanations for the consumer impulse purchasing behaviour and background information beneficial to this research. Through the careful examination of the academic literature surrounding this research topic, key theories have been identified which may contribute to the encouragement of “impulse” purchasing among generation z and y consumers in the Asian Pacific region. The key terms identified in this research are social media marketing, social media influencer, consumer behaviour, SOR theory, and impulse purchasing.
Generation Z receives the nickname “digital natives” from being the first generation that grew up surrounded by digital devices and online presence (Bendoni, 2017). Generation Z includes all individuals who were born from 1995 to 2012 (Bendoni, 2017). They are emotionally connected to digital devices and are comfortable with building relationships with like-minded individuals without having to meet (Bendoni, 2017). According to Desai (2017), eight characteristics are commonly possessed by this generation: speed, innovation, integrity, fun, personalisation, scrutiny, collaboration, and freedom. This generation, with the help of digital devices, has received information and entertainment instantaneously. 营销学论文代写
Therefore, the need for speed and instant gratification is in their nature (Dogra, 2019). This resonates with the characteristics of “speed”. The generation values environmental protection and cultural diversity (Dobre et al, 2021). This can be seen as a love for freedom. Millennials and Generation Z alike enjoy the concept of storytelling with an interest in narrative and realistic plots (Bendoni, 2017). Therefore, influencers who share experiences and attach these stories with their endorsed products can further help the belief process of this generation (Bendoni, 2017). This resembles the personalisation characteristic. Lastly, Kanokwan (2021) posits that generation z is born in a visual era, they think not through trends but in scenes. This observation discloses their preference for visually stimulating social media platforms.
Millennials, or generation y, are the population that was born between 1981 and 1994 (Bendoni, 2017). Millennials spend an estimated 200 billion USD a year, which gives them an upper hand in controlling the market segment (Bendoni, 2017). According to Smith (2011), they are loyal to brands on social media but only after receiving content that is lifestyle-oriented as opposed to product-driven. This is corroborated by Bendoni (2017), as she states that millennials “do not trust in conventional sales approaches”.
Trust and authenticity are the traits needed in convincing millennials because they must trust a company or brand before becoming loyal to them (Silvia, 2019). Therefore, influencers are necessary to market to this generation. As millennials read posts and tweets by influencers about a brand, they gradually learn to trust their authenticity. This is further corroborated by Lou (2019), as she mentions “…43% of millennials rank authenticity over content when consuming news, they filter through on social media.
2.2.3 Asia Pacific Generation Z and Y 营销学论文代写
The Asia Pacific accounted for 52% of the world’s social media users in 2015 and by the year 2020, it accounted for 68% of the world’s social media users (Statista, 2020). Therefore, it is critical to research the attitudes of consumers in the Asia Pacific region. Amongst the general characteristics discussed previously for millennials and digital natives, there are some consumer habits that reside in the social media environment in Asia. According to McKinsey and Company (2020), Asian consumers are more likely to make a purchase that is marketed through a video-based format.
In a survey conducted, generation z’s in Asia listed video as the top three influences that they consider when making purchasing decisions (Cheung et al, 2020). These findings disclose that SMI marketing in Asia must be through visual formats, to stimulate sales chances. Figure 2.1 presents data that indicates Facebook, Instagram and TikTok are the top three most popular social media platforms. These social media platforms are known to be visually driven. Access to Instagram within China mainland is restricted. However, Chinese users generally connect with VPN to gain access to the platform. Therefore, government restriction does not limit their usage of this western app (Insider Intelligence, 2022).
Figure 2.1: Social Network Users in the Asia Pacific Region by Platforms (2020 – 2025)
(Insider Intelligence, 2022)
Marketers and brands have seen the success of social media marketing and have gradually diverted their marketing budget towards influencer marketing. According to ASOS’s annual report for the year 2020, 22% of the marketing budget is devoted to influencer marketing.” This data reflects the success of influencer marketing through return on investment. The term return on investment (ROI), is the calculation of the monetary value of an investment versus its cost (Marketing Evolution, 2022). The calculation of ROI is commonly used in marketing to see if the marketing campaign is generating profit (Zhao et al, 2021). Furthermore, determining the ROI of a campaign can help companies justify marketing spending, distribute marketing budgets, measure campaign success, and establish baselines (Zhao et al, 2021). 营销学论文代写
An ideal marketing ROI is typically a 5:1 ratio and anything below 2:1 is considered not profitable (Dolega, 2021). A survey data suggests that “On average, businesses earn $6.50 in revenue for each $1 invested in influencer marketing” (Dolega, 2021). Therefore statistically, SMI marketing is generating profound revenue for companies. Another research conducted on sales data of fashion company Erigo highlights that since the introduction of endorsement deals with Instagram influencers, company sales increased by 13% in a month’s duration (Yodi et al, 2020).
A method of tracking direct sales from influencer marketing is through promo codes and direct links (Momany, 2016).
The data of the investigated company disclosed that through the introduction of influencer marketing and word of mouth distribution, the promotional code was used for 68% of the sales and bookings done through the direct link distributed by the influencer account for 65% of the sales (Momany, 2016). These research statistics are evidence that SMI marketing is a superior form of marketing that generates profound revenue for companies that integrates the strategy.
Figure 2.2: ASOS Consumer Marketing Budget 营销学论文代写
The Stimuli Organism Response (SOR) theory explains that when an individual is exposed to environmental stimuli can trigger cognitive and emotional responses thereby influencing their subsequent actions (Cheung et al, 2017). This model framework was applied in multiple research papers to different consumer behaviour projects. For instance, Dabbous and Barkat (2020) explained brand awareness and purchase intentions with the help of SOR theory and Martinez (2017) utilised this theory to explain positive environment stimulates satisfaction in retailing. Therefore, this research will utilise SOR theory as a method to understand impulse purchasing. 营销学论文代写
This research will exemplify Instagram influencers’ marketing tactics as the stimuli (S), the “credibility” traits of the influencer as the organism (O) and impulse purchasing by the consumers as the response (R). The study by Peng and Kim (2014) determined that “visually appealing online store pages can attract the consumer more successfully”. Martinez’s (2017) research also found that consumers appeal more to retail environments that are more “positive”. These two studies both found that consumer’s behaviour can be stimulated by certain environmental stimulates which can influence the consumer’s purchasing behaviour. This solidifies that the SOR theory can encourage impulsive purchasing through the stimulation of Instagram influencers’ marketing strategies.
Figure 2.3: SOR Framework applied to Social Media Marketing Activity
2.4.1. SMI Marketing Strategies (stimuli) 营销学论文代写
The term social media influencer marketing denotes the tactics incorporated by brands and marketers that distribute online marketing offerings through social media influencers to establish relationships with consumers (Hudders, 2020).
There are two popular social media marketing strategies which are active and passive approaches. The passive approach views social media as a source of customer feedback and data collecting device to build customer profiles whilst, active approach interacts with consumers through public relations and or direct marketing channels (Kriangsak et al, 2015). Instagram is a popular social media platform for brands and marketers to implement both active and passive marketing approaches, as it has shown to be the most popular platform for businesses to endorse influencers to promote products and services (Backlinko, 2021). A reason for Instagram gaining a competitive edge over other social media platforms is the visual nature of the app (Sokolova, 2020).
Instagram allows only visual content to be posted contrary to just words or phrases. According to Julia Meredith (2020), a senior marketing director at Dash Hudson, “visuals are the heart of building a brand and maximising return on any investment…”. Corroborated by findings through a research project by Maclnnis (1991), stating 70% of subjects retain advertisements that are more visually engaging compared to those that are less. The most popular method of marketing for Instagram influencers would be posts in the form of either pictures, short clips or Instagram stories accompanied by well-curated captions regarding the product or service they are promoting (Ki, 2020). 营销学论文代写
For the posts to stimulate the followers and influence their purchasing intentions, the posts must be intriguing and eye-catching (Ki, 2020).
After posts, the influencer can choose to interact with their followers through the comment section of the posts. These interactions can work in both active and passive approach angles. The comments from the followers can receive customer feedback, whilst influencers replying to the comments of their followers can maintain and heighten their relationship. Subsequently, stimulates more impulse purchasing to occur. Findings from research conducted by Lee (2021) claim that social media marketing activities implemented through influencers are reflective formative constructs consisting of five sub-constructs including personalisation, trends, interactivity, word of mouth, and informativeness. These sub-constructs show the different routes influencers take to receive positive attitudes from their followers.
Personalisation indicates the degree to which influencers create unique content that is viewable only on their profile. Trend construct ensures the influencer keeps up with trend hypes that other influencers are following. Interactivity refers to the back-and-forth interaction influencers have with their followers. For example, SMI can reply to comments on posts. Informativeness construct refers to the expert level information the influencer can give their followers in their domain. Word of mouth indicates the action followers take to recommend and share information regarding the influencer’s account to friends and family. 营销学论文代写
Therefore, word of mouth would normally come later after the other routes have taken place and a positive attitude towards the influencer has been nurtured (Lee et al, 2021). The nature of the influencer’s content can also persuade followers. The SMI’s content has more chances of capturing the attention of followers when they are visually pleasing, informative and or entertaining (Colliander, 2019).
Source credibility implies a communicator’s appealing characteristics which evoke the receiver’s acceptance of a message (Ohanian, 1990). There are three factors that are effective in measuring the level of source credibility expertise, trustworthiness, and attractiveness (Ohanian, 1990). Expertise is the extent to which followers perceive the influencer as a decent source of information (Weismueller et al, 2020). Trustworthiness is measured by how much the followers are willing to rely on, depend on and trust the influencer’s character (Weismueller et al, 2020). Attractiveness in the context of SMI is traits such as physical attractiveness and demeanour (Weismueller et al, 2020). Consumers are more likely to have loyalty toward an influencer with these traits (Weismueller et al, 2020). 营销学论文代写
Kanokwan (2021) speculates that consumers’ perceptions of an influencer are the most significant aspect influencing the attitudes towards a product or service, it does not concern the followers whether these traits influencers possess are real so long as the followers believe in them. The organism in social media marketing should always induce a positive attitude among the consumers because when consumers have a positive attitude towards their favourite influencer, the sense of liking would simultaneously link to the product or service recommended by that influencer which increases the likelihood of impulse purchasing (llicic, 2011).
A prominent link between an SMI’s follower numbers and their source credibility was noticed in the findings of a research project by Yuan (2020), she found that the more followers an influencer has online the more they are perceived as trustworthy.
Similar line of research further suggests that the number of followers an SMI directly impacts the advertising effectiveness of SMI’s branded content (Djafarova, 2017). An influencer’s expertise in their field can be a major factor that influences a follower’s attitude towards purchasing a product or service recommended by that influencer (Aslam, 2021). As SMI’s are followed by consumers that believe in their attractiveness, trustworthiness and or expertise. Therefore, their words and recommendations are deemed credible by nature (Aslam, 2021). In summary, the three factors of source credibility posited by Weismueller (2020) give insight into how influencers can manipulate the subconscious of followers and purchase with impulse.
2.4.3 Online Impulse Purchasing (response) 营销学论文代写
The response element within the SOR theory is the behaviour resulting from the stimulation, the response can be either consumer’s approach or avoidance (Mattila, 2008). Approach behaviour indicates any positive responses displayed by the consumer such as purchasing and positive communications. On the contrary, avoidance behaviours show negativity in the response of the consumer and can be seen as no intention of purchasing or even detest of the product or service (Jamid, 2020). Responses are attitudinal and are dependent on the stimuli and organism. Therefore, to encourage impulse purchasing to occur the response of the consumer should be positive.
Impulse purchasing happens when individuals are inclined to purchase a product or service, ignoring any sensible consideration nor having a reason as to why they need this (Wang et al, 2020). The ideology of impulse purchasing was first discovered in 1962 by Hawkins Stern, the term claimed that consumers’ contact with an environmental stimulus at a store, stimulated their subsequent response which was impromptu purchasing behaviour. This term corroborates with the SOR theory.
As the consumer would first contact the stimulus, then they would process and react to the stimulus accordingly whether it be approach or avoidance (Jamid, 2020).
Therefore, providing a pleasant online atmosphere cue is crucial in prompting an impulse purchasing response among consumers. These cues should stimulate the consumers’ cognitions and emotional states and trigger consumers to engage in impulse purchasing (Kimiagari et al, 2021). This dissertation posits that social media marketing activities from social media influencers (stimuli) have a profound positive influence on followers, due to influencers’ proven credibility (organism) in the minds of the followers, resulting in an increase in impulse purchasing by the consumer (response).
2.4 SMI Marketing’s Influence on Fashion Buying 营销学论文代写
A part of the job of fashion buyers is trend forecasting; apart from fashion magazines (Vogue) and trend forecasting agencies (WGSN), social media platform is another option for consumers, buyers, and merchandisers to keep up with current trends (Jackson, 2001). The rise of celebrity and influencer culture has resulted in uncertainty for buyers when trend forecasting, as it is difficult to predict what consumers want due to trends being sprung up rapidly by SMI (Clark, 2020). Therefore, closely monitoring the influencers that are popular amongst the target market is an excellent option to stay relevant. As influencers post about their daily life, there can be unplanned factors that can have a positive impact on sales (Boardman et al, 2020).
This further emphasizes the importance of staying relevant to an influencer’s social media profile, as particular products worn by influencers without an endorsement can also spark popularity.
Unlike in the past, range planning for buyers now is just as much demand-driven as it is forecast driven, a shift that occurred over the last few years which emphasizes bottom-up factors such as SMI in dictating what people want to wear (Boardman et al, 2020). This suggests that fashion buyers should devote more energy and plan their ranges according to SMI than magazines or forecasting websites. Lastly, buyers should review social media influencers for missed product opportunities and utilise them as another option to study their competitors (Jackson, 2001). In summary, social media influencer marketing is changing the operation of the buying functions. Thus, structural change indicates that the accepted wisdom of the remit of buying amongst other roles within product and supply chain management needs to adapt to a new paradigm, where social media influencer marketing approaches are in high demand (Clark, 2020).
2.5 Conclusion 营销学论文代写
After exploring the academic literature concerning SMI marketing, key points have been identified concerning the extent to which social media influencer marketing encourages consumer impulse purchasing behaviour. Firstly, consumers that are most influenced by SMI marketing in the Asia pacific are generations Z and Y, due to their familiarity with digital devices and their visually driven nature. Secondly, social media influencers have traits that enable them to gain followers, these include attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise. Through the SOR framework, SMI with these traits can inspire positive moods in their followers to encourage impulse purchasing to occur.
From the perspective of businesses, brands and marketers have mostly turned to SMI marketing strategy as opposed to traditional marketing due to the better sales revenue growth and return on investment.
Lastly, fashion buyers can benefit from planning their ranges and buying with consideration of SMI marketing as influencers are the key drivers behind consumers’ purchases. There are still areas that may be researched for how merchandisers can directly benefit from SMI marketing, as the academic literature available for relationship between SMI marketing and buying and merchandising are very limited. The interview conducted will aim to gain knowledge that may fill in the research gaps of the literature review from perspectives of an industry expert, social media influencer and an ideal consumer. The survey will aim to reveal general opinions of consumers in Asian pacific countries regarding SMI marketing encouraging impulse purchasing.
3.1 Introduction 营销学论文代写
To thoroughly examine the extent of psychological impact social media influencer marketing has on consumers’ purchasing behaviour, a research model founded by Saunders (2019) named the “research onion” would be utilised.
Figure 3.1: Research Onion
(Saunders et al., 2012)
3.2 Research Philosophy 营销学论文代写
Research philosophy according to Saunders (2019), is the foundation of any research as it describes the set of beliefs on which the research is constructed based on. Furthermore, having a well-determined research philosophy can ensure the methodology and data analytical process runs more smoothly. Interpretivism suggests the reality of the world is constructed through a strong social standpoint, in saying so human behaviours can be influenced heavily via the surrounding social environment (Aliyu et al, 2014). This research takes on an interpretivist perspective meaning this research focuses on the observations and recordings of popular opinions that lead to an occurrence of a social phenomenon (Saunders et al, 2019).
Interpretivism This paper investigates how SMI’s marketing strategy on social media can impact the consumers’ purchasing behaviour in the Asia Pacific region. More specifically, does the strategy implemented by SMI and brands stimulate “Impulse” purchasing and through what means. The theory of Interpretivism states that different cultural and social settings can influence how an individual acts and perceives matters (Chowdhury, 2014). Interpretivism is more relevant for this research topic than positivism because consumer psychology and the thought process that drives “impulse” purchasing are being investigated. Therefore, the empathetic understanding gained from interviews of the subjects is more beneficial for this research than solely quantitative survey answers.
3.3 Research Approach 营销学论文代写
The inductive research approach focuses on seeking patterns through the data collected from research and developing theories that can explain those patterns (Saunders et al, 2019). Unlike the deductive approach, the inductive approach would not rely heavily on established theories to dictate and predict the outcome of the research. Instead, the inductive approach aims to generate meaning from the research data collected to identify patterns thus constructing a theory (Sullivan, 2013). An inductive approach focused research does not mean disregarding theories when formulating research questions and objectives, on the contrary researchers often formulate the research question using an existing theory (Saunders et al, 2019).
An inductive approach is more suitable for this research topic as qualitative data from interviews can provide more insight into the thought process within a consumer’s mind during exposure to marketing visual stimuli (Gill et al, 2008). The SMI marketing impact has on consumers have been greatly explored by many researchers in the past. However, there are limitations such as cultural and age differences which can impact the type of SMI marketing strategy deemed more effective. Therefore, an inductive research approach would be most compatible with the aim and objectives of this research which hopes to assist in discovering patterns and constructing new theories that disclose insight into the inner workings of consumer impulse purchasing behaviour in the Asia Pacific region. 营销学论文代写
Multi-method data collection was used in this research, meaning both qualitative and quantitative versions of data collection was implemented in order to maximise the variety and validity of information gained (Saunders et al, 2019). Since the research takes an interpretivism approach, the qualitative data which will be collected through interview would be the dominant source for insight, the data should disclose consumer’s thought process and evoked behaviour during exposure to the marketing stimuli. Qualitative research technique provides a gateway for the researchers build a trust relationship with the subjects in order to gain uninhibited opinion and beliefs from them (Jamshed, 2014).
Quantitative methods collect numerical data and generalize those results to a larger group of individuals in order to explain a phenomenon (Jamshed, 2014). This method alone may not provide sufficient data to give meaning to this research topic. However, in conjunction with qualitative data can give a more rounded understanding of the social world through a wider range of perspectives (Creswell, 2012). The questionnaires would act as the quantitative data collection method in this research.
3.4.1 Questionnaires 营销学论文代写
Questionnaires can provide the research with a quick and efficient way on collecting quantitative data from a large sample of individuals, without the interviewer being present (Rowley, 2014). The questionnaires can help provide an idea of the generalised pattern of consumer’s behaviour towards SMI marketing strategy. Questionnaires should be distributed and analysed before implementing the interview, as it be a great starting point to seeing a trend or pattern in order to better the interview questions (Rowley, 2014). This research would construct 15 questions, 13 of which are closed answer questions and 2 are opened answer questions.
The questionnaires would be distributed to 100 different individuals of both generation Z and Y living in Asia Pacific region through a variety of internet platforms that are popular in Asia. The 13 closed answer questions some are nominal, and rest are ordinal, having more closed question than open questions can the subjects do not lose interest and answer the interview carelessly (Gilham, 2007). Another issue with questionnaires is that respondents may lie due to social desirability (Gilham, 2007). Most people want to present a positive image of themselves and so may lie or bend the truth to look good. Therefore, to tackle this problem these questionnaires would be anonymous.
Table 3.1: Questionnaire: Investigation into Social Media Influencers Marketing effectiveness in encouraging Consumer Impulse Purchasing Behaviour in Asia Pacific Region
|What is your age?||– 9 – 18
– 19 – 25
– 26 – 40
– 40 +
|What gender do you identify?||– Male
Do you use social media?
|What social media platforms do you use? (Can choose multiple)||– Instagram
– TikTok /Douyin
|How often do you use the apps in a day?||– Less than an hour a day
– Less than three hours a day
– Less than six hours a day
– More than six hours a day
|Do you prefer social media platforms that are more picture-based or text-based? 营销学论文代写||– Picture Based
– Text Based
|How often do you buy products or services recommended by your favourite influencer?||– Often
|Have you ever purchased something you don’t need but because your favourite influencer suggests and recommended it therefore you bought it in a heartbeat?||– Yes
|What kind of influencer or do you normally follow on your social media account?||– Beauty and wellness
– Gaming Guru
– Food related
– Physically Attractive
|Finding the product recommended by your favourite influencer is of bad quality, would you purchase another product recommended by that influencer in the future?||– Yes, I would risk it again
– No, I would think twice before following
Where are you from? 营销学论文代写
– China Mainland
– Southeast Asia
|If you found out that the product or service recommended by your favourite influencer is paid promotion from the brand, does it affect your likely hood of purchasing the product or service?
|– Would not buy it anymore
– Doesn’t affect the drive to purchase
– Would make me want to buy it more
|Does bad reputation or negative news about your favourite influencer sway your decision in purchasing a product they recommend?||– Yes
|Who are your favourite Influencers on Instagram? (Can be multiple)||Open Question|
|What traits of these influencers attract you the most? (Can be multiple)||Open Question|
(Authors Own, 2022)
3.4.2 Interviews 营销学论文代写
Interviews are one of the most popular qualitative research methods, it is a straightforward strategy to extract the opinions and attitudes of a subject (Hancock, 2009). There are three different types of interviews structured, semi-structured and unstructured (Creswell, 2012). The interviews in this dissertation would implement semi-structured interviews. Semi-structured interviews consist of an overall structure to the questions. However, researchers may diverge in order to pursue an idea or an interesting response from the subject (Creswell, 2012).
Semi-structured interviews can provide the interviewer with adequate information to cover relevant themes in the literature review but also probe for in-depth responses from the interviewee meaning the interviewer can gain the greatest amount of understanding of the research topic from the interview (DiCicco Bloom, 2006). Three interviews would be done to gain an understanding of the research topic. One of the interviews would come from the perspective of a professional, the second interview would be from the perspective of the SMI and the last interviews would be from consumers.
Current Louis Vuitton Operational Manager in London; previous experience in buying, merchandising, and marketing fields in Taiwan: Grace Chang
- Social Media Influencer: Taiwanese Instagram Influencer: Kiiesx
- Asian Consumer: UCA Student,Pengfei Li
Table 3.2: Interview Questions
|Themes||Interviewee||Key Interview Questions|
|Social Media Influencer Marketing in Generation Z and Y||Grace, Fei, Kiiesx||Why do you think brands and marketers are rapidly integrating social media marketing into their marketing strategy in this day and age?
How effective do you think social media influencer marketing is when targeting generation Z and Y?
|Influencer Traits and Credibility 营销学论文代写||Kiiesx, Fei, Grace||Who’s your favourite influencer on social media?
What characteristics or traits make them appealing to you?
|Impulse Purchasing Habits||Kiiesx, Fei, Grace||Do you think having these traits in your favourite influencer encourages you to purchase from their recommendation more?
If these traits are not present in an influencer, can they still convince you to buy or use a product?
|Buying and Merchandising relevance in SMI marketing.||Grace||Can SMI marketing benefit Fashion Buying and Merchandising in anyway?|
(Author’s Own, 2022)
The term reliability refers to whether the primary research and analytical techniques would deduce consistent findings, if the research was replicated (Saunders et al, 2019). For the survey, reliability was reduced due to the distribution of the survey was anonymous and unsupervised. Therefore, there may be a few carelessly answered surveys. As for the interview, the semi – structured nature of the interview slightly lowers the reliability (Saunders et al, 2019). The discrepancy amongst each interviewee’s questions aims to induce responses that relates to their perspective roles.
The researcher can also risk the reliability of a research, through potential involvement of their subjective viewpoint which can influence the findings or simple research errors (Saunders et al, 2019). To minimise bias occurring within the interview, the bases questions for all three participants will remain the same only a few of the questions will be tailored. This will allow the results to be comparable during the analysis section of the dissertation.
Validity is the extent to which a test measures what it claims to measure (Lakshmi, 2013). To enforce validity of the results gathered from the primary research, triangulatory design is applied. Triangulatory approach combines the data collected from separate methods to offset the weaknesses in each (Borrego et al, 2009). After data collection phase, interpretation from comparing results of each to best understand the research question (Creswell, 2012).
3.6 Data Analysis 营销学论文代写
Quantitative research aims to collect data in numerical forms (Rowley, 2014). The quantitative data in this research will be gathered through questionnaires. Subsequently, findings that aids in understanding the research aim or objectives will be isolated and presented in the forms of charts and graphs. Furthermore, chi square test, will be used to in-depth analyse the hidden correlation between two data sets (Saunders et al, 2019). The few open answer questions in the questionnaire falls under qualitative data. Therefore, coding for common themes was applied (Elliot, 2018). Coding is the process of which of text data are separated and reorganised into a more meaningful context (Elliot, 2018).
Qualitative data obtain from the interviews will be recorded in writing and colour coded to the relevant objectives. In doing so, it will be easier for the researcher to code, analyse and categories the information into relevant themes within the research (Creswell, 2012). Throughout the end of the analysis, triangulation technique will help combine both quantitative and qualitative data resulting in a well-rounded answer for the research question (Borrego et al, 2009). 营销学论文代写
The terms ethical consideration in the context of research is about ensuring respectful relationship is maintained with the participants throughout all aspects of the research including design and implementation (Mortari, 2009). To ensure the research conducted was ethically considerate, participants that were interviewed were provided with a consent form to complete. The form informed the participant data collected will remain for the use of this research solely. Consent forms are a way for research project to provide the necessary information to participants about the research and to avoid any misconception about the research (Mortari, 2009).
The three participants involved in the interview were notified about their rights to withdraw their participation in the research at any point, which their personal information would also be stricken from the records. All the participants were happy to have their name and job description made visible throughout the research (Appendix). Through careful abiding of these ethical considerations the participant’s rights are assured, this can generate a sense of trust between participant and researcher. Hence, a closer relationship is developed resulting in better quality data collection (Lavrakas, 2008)
3.8 Limitations 营销学论文代写
Time was one of the dissertation’s restrictions; due to the limited time frame in which this research needs to be finished by, a longitudinal study was not possible. As a result, both the interviews and the survey findings capture the participants’ thoughts at a certain point in time.
In summary, the framework for this research is:
Table 3.3: Research Methodology Framework
|Research Choices||Multi Methods: Questionnaires, Interview|
|Research Type||Quantitative and Qualitative|
|Data Analysis||Graphs, Charts, Chi Square Test, Coding|
|Ethical Considerations||Questionnaires Anonymous|
(Authors Own, 2022)
This section will present the primary research findings from the survey and interviews. The ethics form, signed consent forms and coded interview transcripts can be found in the appendices.
4.1 Questionnaire 营销学论文代写
The survey conduct had 102 responses. However, 2 of the participants were over the age of 40. As this research is targeted at generations Z and Y, their responses were removed from the final findings and analysis.
What is your age and what is your gender?
The questionnaire starts off by establishing the basic information of the participants both age, and gender. This data shows that the participants that will be answering the survey is the accurate target consumer, which is generation Z (71%) and Y (29%). The gender question allows more assurance for the credibility of the survey. As both the gender male (47%) and female (49%) are very similar in numbers, there is minimise chance of gender bias for the answers.
Figure 4.1: Figure 4.2:
(Authors Own) (Authors Own)
Where are you from? (Figure 4.3)
This question is another attempt to establish the basic information of the participants and ensure the researcher bias is minimised. The target consumers of this research topic are consumers in Asia Pacific region. Therefore, a diversity in the participants is a must to ensure the fairness and accuracy of the data compiled from the survey. The graph shows that most participants are from China (22%) and the least is from India (6%).
Which of these social media platforms do you use (Multiple choice)? (Figure 4.4)
Majority of the participants selected Instagram as one of the social media platforms they use (92). Followed by TikTok (41), as the second most popular platform for the participants. A possible explanation for this phenomenon could be both platforms are visually driven platforms instead of text-based platforms. The graph shows, text-based platforms such as Kakaoo (19) and Twitter (26) gain the least amount of popularity.
Do you prefer social media platform that are picture based or text based? (Figure 4.5)
This question is designed to evaluate whether the visually driven nature of a social media platform is a decision maker for generation Z and Y when choosing platforms. The chart shows, that 78% of the participants choose picture-based apps over text-based apps. This data implies that over two- thirds of participants were more inclined to bond over sharing videos or pictures than purely connecting with texts. This finding offers an explanation as to the selection of Instagram and TikTok as the most popular platform for participants. This data reveals that, generation Z and Y may use both forms of social media platform. However, platforms that are more visually appealing or entertaining through visual aids are more popular amongst them.
Have you ever made an impulse purchase when your favourite influencer used or recommended a product? (Figure 4.6) and
How often do you buy products recommended by your favourite influencer? (Figure 4.7) 营销学论文代写
Regarding questions in relation to social media influencer marketing, data shows that majority of the participants seems to be affected by it but with different extent. As seen in figure 4.7 apart from the 20% who responded that they never bought anything that was recommended by their influencer, 80% of the rest responded with answers that imply they have engaged with influencer marketing at least once. In conjunction with data displayed in figure 4.6, 76% of the participants labels their action as an “impulse” purchase. In other words, the action of purchasing from the influencer was a sub-conscious decision. Through these data it can be deduced that generation Z and Y, are indeed influenced by social media influencer marketing and a great number of them are displaying actions of impulse purchasing.
Figure 4.6: Figure 4.7:
(Authors Own) (Authors Own)
What influencer traits attracts you most? (Figure 9)
Figure 4.9 is a word art derived from the response gathered from question 15 of the survey. The question asks for a short response, about which trait of your favourite influencer attracts you the most. The top three answers amongst participants falls under three categories stylish, attractive (good looks), and creative. These traits are common for a lot of the participants despite their influencer are all different individuals. These traits are signifying positive attributes, which may explain how the influencer attract and convince their followers.
Does hearing negative news about your favourite influencer sway your decision in trusting that influencer? (Figure 4.10)
Results from figure 4.10 indicates that negative news or bad reputation can have an effect on an influencer’s credibility. 80% of participants believes that if their favourite influencer has news that are unpleasant, it could affect their trust in them. Subsequently, reevaluating the influencer’s character. This data suggests that followers’ impulse purchasing habits can be decreased if the positive characteristic of an influencer is questioned.
4.1.1 Survey Correlations (Chi- Square Tests) 营销学论文代写
Credibility of Influencer and Consumer Impulse Purchasing
There was a positive correlation identified between the credibility of influencer and consumer’s impulse purchasing. Figure 4.9 presents the traits that participants see in their favourite influencer attractiveness and stylish being the top answer. In the subconscious level of the followers, these traits generate positive emotions towards the influencer. Thus, making followers feel more trusting towards the influencer. When these traits that make the influencer more “credible” are questioned from negative new or bad reputation (figure 4.10), followers hesitate and ponders before purchasing. Therefore, when the credibility of the influencer is established, impulse purchasing occurs. However, when the credibility is questioned impulse purchasing is hindered.
Visually Appealing and Social Media Platforms
There was a positive correlation between visually driven platforms and generation Z and Y users. Through the statistics shown in figure 4.5, it explains that more than two thirds of participants choose social media platforms with strong visual aspects as opposed to text based platforms. This finding is reflected through participants choice of Instagram and TikTok being the most popular social media platform. Therefore, there can be speculation that generations Z and Y as a collective, are instinctively more visually driven of a generation.
4.2 Interview 营销学论文代写
This section aims to explore the research topic further. Through summarizing and categorizing the relevant findings within the three interviews into themes. The coded transcripts of each interview can be located in the appendices section.
These findings are sorted into themes to better answer the research question.
- (S) Social Media Influencer Marketing in Generation Z and Y
- (O) Influencer Credibility Traits
- (R) Impulse Purchasing
- Influencer Marketing correlates to Fashion Buying
(S) Social Media Influencer Marketing in Generation Z and Y
All the interviewees mention Instagram as a choice of social media platform. When asked for the reason of choosing Instagram, most common answer for them are responses relating to the platform’s visually driven nature. Fei ,a generation Z consumer, feels that Instagram can allow her to “take photos or videos whilst editing the content all within the app”. This provides her with “great convenience”. Kiiesx provides similar answer by suggesting that Instagram has distinctive tools called “reels” which are very useful in connecting with he’s followers. Furthermore, Kiiesx believes that Instagram’s competitive edge stems from “being a platform that allow users to colour – coordinate their profile”.
He explains it is very aesthetically pleasing for viewers when the posts each have a relevant colour theme. Interviewees’ reply indicates that there’s a level of concern surrounding the visual aspects of social media platforms. Generation Z and Y tend to be more enticed by visual contents. This is further corroborated by Grace when she states 营销学论文代写
“Definitely prefer video content or like photos, it’s more vibrant I can see what is going on in people’s lives instead of imagining it through reading words.”
When asked the effectiveness of targeting generation Z and Y with SMI marketing, Fei and Kiiesx believe SMI marketing are significant in affecting both generation Z and Y. Kiiesx elaborates that Generation Z and Y spend time on social media to “gain inspiration”. Therefore, their mindsets are already more receptive to new products and services whilst using social media. Grace’s beliefs differ, she believes it affects generation Z more effectively. She further explains that
“Millennials are born earlier than the beginning of digitalization and with age should be more cautious in their spending in comparison to the generation Z.”
Fei believes it doesn’t matter the number of followers the influencer has because “everyone has different preferences and the right things and ideas”. Grace beliefs differ suggesting that “the more followers an influencer has the more under the spotlight they will be. Thus, they will have less of a leeway when making a mistake”. Therefore, it can be assumed that influencer’s number of followers has some impact to their credibility to some consumers. Finally, Fei displays a negative sensation towards endorsement, through a response. “Something about brand endorsements makes me question the product quality”. This finding was also displayed in data collected from question 10 of the survey, showing that at least 39.6% of survey participants have negative feelings towards endorsements (Appendix ).
(O) Influencer Credibility Traits 营销学论文代写
When asked about the traits that are present in their favourite influencer, the interviewee provided with answers that resembles the three factors of credibility (Ohanian, 1990). Depending on which influencer for Fei, she sees “unique aesthetics and creative approach” in some influencers and “physical attractiveness” for celebrity influencers. Overall, “physical attractiveness” answer is present for two interviewees. However, generation Y representative (Grace) suggests “stylish”, “trustworthiness” and “expertise” as her influencer’s traits. She explains as a newbie mum the influencer’s she follows are mostly fashion mums. Therefore,
“Compared to attractiveness, having traits like trustworthiness and expertise are more meaningful to me”
Kiiesx mentions that it is through “attractive photos and expertise in editing” that he gains he’s following. Slightly different from followers’ perspective, Kiiesx explains that followers “trust” comes with time and expertise would be reflected through he’s skills. Continuing the question further; Fei discloses that, “more familiar you are to the way an influencer acts the more you can make the decision on if their actions can be trusted”. Therefore, some credibility traits can be effective immediately. However, traits like trustworthiness takes time to develop in their relationship. Negative impacts on reputation of an influencer can have some effect on their credibility traits.
“If the negative news is regarding the recommended products, it will have some impact on the trust”.
In other words, if the products recommended by influencer ends up being of poor quality, it can cause followers to lose trust in the expertise of that influencer. This information corroborates with question 11 of the survey, 54.5% of participants agree that poor quality recommendation reflects negatively on influencers (Appendix ).
(R) Impulse Purchasing 营销学论文代写
After discussing the credibility traits of their favourite influencers, it is important for the interview to identify if there is a positive correlation between a credible influencer and encouraging impulse purchasing in followers. Fei discloses that she has “purchased merchandises relating to Instagram celebrities before” and it is an ongoing act. This can be justified by her opinion on “attractiveness” being a trait for her celebrity influencers. From an Influencer’s perspective, Kiiesx shares that he’s followers has visited restaurants that are shown in he’s Instagram posts, which were part of an endorsement. Grace shares that she has bought a few of handbags, clothing and skincare relating to influencer before. However, the only impulse purchase she has made was when her favourite influencer Chiara Ferragni wore a shearling bag from LV in her photo. She emphasizes that the reason she acted under impulse was because
“As an LV senior employee, I have company benefits so I can get the bag with credit.” 营销学论文代写
Similarly, Fei mentioned that she “bought a M.A.C powder set when Lisa was the brand ambassador”., She justified the purchase by explaining “it was not expensive” so it was not risky. In a question that asked if any of the purchase were under impulse, Fei’s response was that she’s normally “rational” and considers practicality before purchasing, and she “rarely” buys under impulse. On the other hand, Grace responded by saying
“Usually, I would consider for a couple of weeks and if I still think of it then I’ll see if I would get a lot of use out of it.”
Her excuse for impulse purchasing was
“There were employee benefits, so I did not have to pay full price. I wouldn’t have made such an impulse decision if it was full price.”
Generation Z and Y interviewees’ both are “rational” and considers a while before making a purchase. However, generation Z and Y both admits that occasionally they make an impulse purchase. There seems to be a positive correlation between influencer’s credibility traits and consumers purchasing intentions. However, more factors such as “endorsements” and “price” seems to be influencing factors that ultimately result in the action of “impulse” purchasing.
Influencer Marketing correlation to Fashion Buying and Merchandising 营销学论文代写
Grace, as a former buying and merchandising professional and current operational manager at Louis Vuitton, provided some insight as to how fashion buying and merchandising operation can benefit from integrating SMI marketing. Through, every day in store operations she notices
“Most consumers have a habit of reading product reviews from their influencers before they shop in store, especially Asian customers, they come in asking for products worn by celebrities who are endorsed by the brand.”
This statement suggests that Asian consumers are heavily influenced by SMI marketing even if it is obviously and endorsed act. Therefore, she believes that fashion buyers should “regularly monitor these endorsed influencers “and see what product they are pushing in order to predict which products would sell out and attempt to restock accordingly. Grace mentions from the perspective of merchandising that
“When the merchandising department would like to promote or launch products, they could utilise Influencer’s to build buzz on social media before the launch.”
She further explains that “feedback and reaction from social media platform can be a performance guideline for the merchandising department”. Therefore, both buyers and merchandisers can benefit greatly from influencer marketing from different angles. However, if executed both can result in sales revenue for the brand.
5.0 Results Analysis and Discussion 营销学论文代写
Compiling both the primary research results and the secondary research reviewed, this section will answer the research objectives set from the beginning of the dissertation.
Table 5.1: Research Question and Aim
|Research Question||To what extent does social media influencer marketing have on encouraging consumer impulse purchasing in the Asian Pacific region?|
|Research Aim||To determine the effectiveness of social media influencer marketing in encouraging impulse purchasing behaviour in generations y and z consumers in the Asia Pacific region.
5.1 Objective One: To Examine the Academic Literature related to Social Media Influencer Marketing in Fashion and How it can Affect Generation Z and Y 营销学论文代写
Through evaluating an array of primary and secondary data, it can be assumed that social media influencer marketing can be an effective strategy to attract the attention of generations Z and Y consumers. Generations Z are “emotionally connected to digital devices” (Bendoni, 2017) and are used to “receiving information and entertainment instantaneously. Therefore, the need for speed and instant gratification is in their nature (Dogra, 2019)”. On the other hand, millennials are more “cautious to about traditional marketing tactics as they are older than generation Z,” said Grace, a millennial representative interviewee. This belief is also reflected by Bendoni (2017), that millennials “do not trust in conventional sales approaches”.
These sources explains that millennials would be more cautious about traditional marketing tactics. Therefore, there would be an opportunity for SMI marketing strategy as “consumers’ perceptions of an influencer are the most significant aspect influencing the attitudes towards a product or service” (Kanokwan, 2021).
A literature finding suggests that generations Z and Y favour visual stimulating platforms (Peng and Kim, 2014). As, these generations are “born in a visual era, they think not through trends but in scenes” (Kanokwan, 2021). These findings were later validated through the survey, as 78% of participants prefer picture based social media platforms than text based (figure 4.5). These discoveries can explain why, Instagram seem to be the most popular platform amongst these generations as survey suggests 92 participants selected Instagram as one of their most used social media platforms (figure 4.4). This data corroborates with figure 2.1by Insider Intelligence (2022), showing that Instagram is ranked in top three used social media platform in Asia Pacific. 营销学论文代写
From an Influencer’s viewpoint Kiiesx explains that “Instagram’s distinctiveness stems from being a platform that allow users to colour – coordinate their profile”. This statement supports the theory that generation Z and Y prefer Instagram due to its visually driven nature.
According to McKinsey and Company (2020), Asian consumers are more likely to make a purchase that is marketed through a video-based format. This research finding was later corroborated by Grace providing a professional insight that “consumers have a habit of reading product reviews from their influencers, especially Asian customers, they come in asking for products worn by celebrities endorsed by the brand”. This proves that SMI marketing is successfully penetrating the generation Z and Y market and subsequently driving up sales.
Business outcomes are a more solid way of measuring the effectiveness of SMI marketing. “On average, businesses earn $6.50 in revenue for each $1 invested in influencer marketing” (Dolega, 2021). This average ROI rate is far more superior than other traditional marketing strategies. On the other hand, research conducted on sales data of fashion company Erigo highlights that since the introduction of endorsement deals with Instagram influencers, company sales increased by 13% in a month’s duration (Yodi et al, 2020).
These statistics show that SMI marketing effectiveness is not just theory, it is backed by sales outcome. Survey validates the business statistics by disclosing that, 76% of participants has bought something from their favourite influencer in the past (figure 4.6). Both the primary and secondary findings validate the claim that SMI marketing is effective in targeting generation Z and Y.
5.2 Objective Two: To Analyse what Credibility traits are most Appealing to Generations Z and Y in the Asia Pacific Region 营销学论文代写
The presence of credibility traits in an influencer has vast impact on their ability to attract followers. Source credibility implies a communicator’s appealing characteristics which evoke the receiver’s acceptance of a message. And there are three factors that are effective in measuring the level of source credibility expertise, trustworthiness. And attractiveness (Ohanian, 1990). A few findings also suggest that “consumers are more likely to develop loyalty towards an influencer displaying these traits (Weismueller et al, 2020). Primary research findings posit that generation Z interviewees emphasizes over the trait of “attractiveness” in an influencer. Fei suggests that “creative approach and unique aesthetics” are traits that she admires in some of her influencers. And “physical attractiveness” for celebrity influencers.
On the contrary, generation Y representative Grace suggests that “compared to attractiveness, having traits like trustworthiness. And expertise are more meaningful to me”. However, she continues to mention “stylishness” as another trait. Both creative approach and stylishness can be sub-categorized under expertise. An influencer’s expertise in their field can be a major factor that influences a follower’s attitude towards purchasing a product. Or service recommended by that influencer (Aslam, 2021). 营销学论文代写
Some credibility traits like attractiveness and expertise can be effective immediately.
However, traits like trustworthiness takes time to develop in their relations, Fei explains “more familiar you are to the way an influencer acts the more you can make the decision if their actions can be trusted”. The evidence suggests that generation Z and Y’s care about all three factors of attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise. However, millennials put more focus on the trustworthiness and expertise traits of an influencer.
A secondary literature suggests that there is a positive correlation between a SMI’s follower numbers and their source credibility (Yuan, 2020). Another similar research was conducted suggesting SMI follower numbers have direct impact on the advertising effectiveness of SMI’s branded content (Djafarova, 2017). Corroborating result was discovered during the primary research, Grace believes more followers makes them more trustworthy. She explains that “the more followers they have would mean they are more known by society. Therefore, spotlights would be on their every action, giving them more pressure to not make a mistake”. This information validates the claim of positive correlation between follower numbers and influencer credibility (trustworthiness).
5.3 Objective Three: To Investigate How SOR Theory can Explain the Mental Processes of Consumer Impulse Purchasing through Social Media Influencer Marketing 营销学论文代写
The Stimuli Organism Response (SOR) theory explains that when an individual is exposed to environmental stimuli can trigger cognitive. And emotional responses thereby influencing their subsequent actions (Cheung et al, 2017). This research will exemplify Instagram influencers’ marketing tactics as the stimuli (S). The “credibility” traits of the influencer as the organism (O) and impulse purchasing by the consumers as the response (R). Research findings claims that social media marketing activities implemented through influencers are reflective formative constructs consisting of five sub-constructs personalisation, trends, interactivity, word of mouth and informativeness (Lee et al, 2021). These sub-constructs show the different routes influencers take to receive positive attitudes from their followers.
Key take away from this literature is that the success of SMI marketing is established around the basis of influencer’s capability to receive “positive attitudes” from their followers. The traits or characteristics of an influencer in social media marketing should always aim to induce a positive attitude among the consumers because when consumers have a positive attitude towards their favourite influencer. The sense of liking would simultaneously link to the product or service recommended by that influencer which increases the likelihood of impulse purchasing (llicic, 2011).
This theory is validated through an interview response by Fei when she said she “often purchases merchandise relating to her Instagram celebrity”. This action can be explained as having high levels of “attractiveness” towards this celebrity influencer. Therefore, primary and secondary research data corroborates the theory that well established credibility traits increased the “positive attitude” in the influencers.
Primary research revealed that negative impacts on the reputation of the influencer can have some effects on their credibility traits. “If the negative news is regarding the recommended products, it will have some impact on the trust” said Fei. This information shows that an influencer must be cautious with the product or service they recommend. Because if the products end up being of poor quality, it can reflect poorly on the influencer. This would cause followers to not only lose trust in that influencer but also lower the influencers expertise in the mind of the followers. This information is reflected through survey as well, 54.5% of participants agree that poor quality recommendation reflects negatively on influencer. Therefore, it is evident that negative impact on the credibility of the influencer can impede the actions of impulse purchasing to occur. 营销学论文代写
Analysing the results from primary research, another possible factor alongside credibility of an influencer can also impact on consumer impulse purchasing. The factors of price and endorsement seem to play apart in the impulse purchasing habits of two of the interviewees. Fei justified an impulse purchase from a celebrity influencer by mentioning “it was not expensive, so it was not risky”. This emphasis on price was also seen on Grace, as she made an impulse purchase of a handbag on marketed through Chiara Ferragni’s post. She explained “there was employee credit to apply to the handbag. I wouldn’t make such an impulse decision if it was full price”.
These impulse purchases were induced by credible influencers.
However, the factor of price was also considered for the purchase to occur. In addition to price, followers seem to display a negative sensation towards posts that are obviously endorsements. In the interview Fei states that “something about brand endorsements makes me question the product quality”. This negative sensation is also reflected through the survey. When 39.6% of participants would feel less confident about influencers recommendation when it is an endorsement. Therefore, knowledge of how price and endorsement factors can affect impulse purchasing in SMI marketing can be a further study direction for the future.
In summary, responses (impulse purchasing) are attitudinal. And are dependent on the stimuli (SMI marketing tactics) and organism (credibility trait). Therefore, to encourage impulse purchase to occur the response of the consumer should be “positive”. Social media marketing activities from social media influencers (stimuli) have a profound positive influence on followers. Due to influencers’ proven credibility (organism) in the minds of the followers, resulting in an increase in impulse purchasing by the consumer (response).
5.4 Objective Four: To Evaluate how Monitoring “Credible” Social Media Influencers’ Instagram accounts, can Benefit Fashion Buyers and Merchandisers. 营销学论文代写
Social media influencer marketing is changing the operation of the buying functions. The rise of celebrity and influencer culture has resulted in uncertainty for buyers. When trend forecasting, as it is difficult to predict what consumers desire due to trends being sprung up rapidly through SMI (Clark, 2020). Therefore Grace, as a professional in the industry, suggests that “regularly monitoring these endorsed influencers. And see what product they are pushing can determine which products would sell out”. Subsequently a buyer would cease this opportunity and attempt to restock, if possible, which can increase sales.
Similarly, influencers may post about their daily life, there can be unplanned factors that can have a positive impact on sales (Boardman et al, 2020). A daily post from the influencer that is not endorsement can also inspire the followers to want to follow their style. Therefore, closely monitoring recent posts from influencers that are favored. By the target consumers can ensure the buyer can plan their range according to the demand.
For buyers now, range planning is just as much demand-driven as it is forecast driven. A shift that occurred over the last few years which emphasizes bottom-up factors such as SMI is dictating what people want to wear (Boardman et al, 2020). This means that understand SMI marketing is necessary for the success of fashion buyers now and in the future. The primary research interview with Grace provided some insight into possible benefits for merchandisers with regards to SMI marketing. Firstly. “When the merchandising department would like to promote or launch products, they could utilise Influencer’s to build buzz on social media before the launch”. 营销学论文代写
Secondly, “feedback and reaction from social media platform can be a performance guideline for the merchandising department”.
In other words, merchandisers just like marketers can endorse SMI to increase exposure of a product that they are introducing. Through an Instagram post, they can monitor the comment sections of the posts or video to see how the followers react to the product. Evaluating the data received they can begin to perform an estimation of sales. And conduct planning of stock levels (Hebrero, 2015). Therefore, both buyers and merchandisers can benefit from SMI marketing from different angles.
A limitation for this research would be the sample size of the interviewees. There could have been more participants selected for the interview. However, due to COVID, many of the participant selected for the interview decided to withdraw from the interview. This delayed the time it took to receive results from all three perspectives (consumer, influencer and professional) which were necessary for the research analysis and evaluation. Having more participants for the interviews can ensure the data collected from the primary research can more precisely reflect the behaviour. And thought processes of generations Z and Y in a social media environment. Therefore, if more time was granted there could be more interviewees participating and a more thorough result to analyse.
6.0 Conclusion 营销学论文代写
The aim of this dissertation was to determine the effectiveness of social media influencer marketing in encouraging consumer impulse purchasing behaviour in Asia Pacific region. Literature review suggested that consumers that are most affected. By SMI marketing in the Asia Pacific region are generations Z and Y, due to their familiarity with digital devices and their visually driven preference. Furthermore, primary research shows that Instagram is the most popular social media platform amongst the Asian generation Z and Y participants. Instagram is a platform that is picture based which can explain why the popularity amongst the generation. Brands and marketers choose social media marketing strategy because of the increased sales revenue and high return on investment (ROI).
The paramount business outcomes of the strategy make it one of the most popular marketing strategies to date. The underlying research relies on Stimuli Organism Response (SOR) framework to explain how SMI marketing encourages consumer impulse purchasing behaviour. This research will exemplify Instagram influencers’ marketing tactics as the stimuli (S), the “credibility” traits of the influencer as the organism (O) and impulse purchasing by the consumers as the response (R). Findings claims that SMI marketing strategy can be categorized through personalisation, trends, interactivity, word of mouth and informativeness.
These constructs show the different path an influencer takes to receive positive attitudes from their followers.
The success of influencer marketing strategy comes from being able to receive “positive attitude” from the followers. The credibility traits of an influencer include attractiveness, trustworthiness, and expertise, these traits have a positive correlation with “positive attitudes”. Therefore, the more of these three factors followers feel towards the influencer, the more positive attitude followers have towards the influencer. Finally, Responses are attitudinal and are dependent on the stimuli and organism. Therefore, to encourage impulse purchasing to occur the response of the consumer should be positive. This research can benefit the buying and merchandising team, as it is paramount for buyers. And merchandisers to understand the importance of SMI marketing in encouraging impulse purchasing. 营销学论文代写
For fashion buyers range planning is important before every season. Consumers now are inspired by influencer for their next purchase. Therefore, buyers must understand which influencers are credible and monitor their social media profile to identify the next trend. If the product is in season, then they can attempt to restock the product to bump up sales. Fashion merchandisers can receive feedback and reaction from these endorsement posts as a performance guideline. Through evaluating the comments from followers, they can begin to perform an estimation of sales and conduct planning of stock levels.
In summary, this research provided insight into the world of social media influencer marketing. Findings suggest that social media marketing is effective in targeting generation Z and Y in Asia Pacific regions. Through SMI marketing strategies (S) on Instagram, influencers with high levels of attractiveness, trustworthiness and or expertise (O) can successfully encourage their followers to impulse purchase (R) products.
6.1 Recommendations 营销学论文代写
Through the primary research, there was some possible pathways for future research can be recommended. This research focused on the credibility of the influencer being the variable that encourages consumer impulse purchasing. However, the interview identified “endorsement” and “price” factors also may impede the impulse purchasing action in consumers. Therefore, further research can include the consideration of those two factors as a tested variable. The research sample size could increase. Due to the limited time frame allowed, there was only 100 participants chosen for the survey and 3 for the interview. Increasing the sample size can provide a more accurate picture of generation Z and Y. This research was also not specific on a fashion sector. Future research may choose to target a specific fashion sector. For example, fast fashion or luxury fashion.