Applied Research Methods for Communication

Communication application代写 APPLIED RESEARCH METHODS FOR COMMUNICATION. In the walkthrough method, I reviewed the Facebook app.

Part A

Practical Task: App Walk Through Method            Communication application代写

In the walkthrough method, I reviewed the Facebook app.

Facebook is a social networking app available to smartphones and access through web applications (, n.d). The app vision is purely social networking which has recently been leveraged by businesses to create product awareness through social advertising as seen in the article by (Dehghani and Tumer, 2015, p. 597). The app target individuals, businesses, and government organization and institutions which can use the app for purposed of communication and interactions. Communication application代写**成品

Through its individual and group-based profile as well as page options, users have a wide ally of options of the platform suitable to their social needs. Facebook vision is clearly communicated in its frequently asked questions (FAQs) beside it is easy to navigate through various functionalities.

At its inception, Facebook was purely meant for communication between friends.  Communication application代写

However, as its popularity grew, it opened the era of social advertising and hence needed an operating model which underlies business strategy and revenue sources. Facebook mainly depends on advertising which accounts for 98 percent of its revenue (Hensel, 2018). It allows the creation of pages through which individuals or organizations can customize their communications to target groups using Facebook user targeting and analytics. The business model has generated more than $55.01 billion in revenue in 2018.

Moreover, Facebook app governance is contained in the Terms of use.      Communication application代写

Unlike other apps, the term offers the user global connectivity and networking free without any charge. However, it is surprising how it trades its free access with access and use of data in its data policy. The app collects the information and content a user provides including usage, transactions, and networks. Interestingly, it uses this information to sell to advertisers for revenue. Notably, Facebook is very strict on the usage especially on the posts made in timelines. It discourages violence and criminal posts and behaviors and has a mechanism to filter undesirable contents and those that breach their terms of use.

Additionally, Facebook is one of the easiest apps to acquire, register and enter.    Communication application代写

Unlike many apps, it is free for virtually all its social vision. The user only needs a contact detail to set a free account and customize the profile which is optional which makes it convenient and preferable over some premium apps. Unlike many apps which require subscriptions, it free for a lifetime and does not segment its users as either elite or premium users. Thus, it is one of the widely used apps in the world.

Besides, the app is widely used for social networking and online advertising.    Communication application代写

Users have options to create either an individual profile or a group/page. The preference between the three is dependent on the intention of creating the account. These accounts are free except that page accounts are paid only when the user intends to users’ data with Facebook for advertising. Most businesses use pages and groups for purposes of advertising. Overall, the app is easy to use and navigate through various functionalities and options.

However, the app does not make it easy for the user to suspend, close or leave created account.    Communication application代写

The app uses cookies which track the usage and save usage history for ease of access even after logout. When closing the account, one is prompted with messages which discourage leaving your friends who will miss you. The app also gives options to deactivate the account temporarily and reactivate it after considerations. In essence, the app tries to enclose and create virtual loyalty with its users through prompts messages that are encouraging to stay and use of cookies for convenience.

Communication application代写
Communication application代写

Practical Task: Content Analysis          Communication application代写

For this task, I selected two articles reported by CNN namely “A gunman slaughtered 11 Jewish worshippers.

Then people hunted for hate online” and “15-year-old school shooting survivor says it’s ‘scary not knowing what’s going to come next’” which relate to the reporting on gun violence in the United States. The first article was written by Mallory Simon and Sara Sidner and reports on online searches which have insinuated the hate against Jews people in America. The article reports on how Americans have resorted to searching anti-Semitic on google such as “Jews must die,” “kill Jews,” and other terms which gave discriminatory and hateful results (Simon and Sidner, 2019). Communication application代写**成品

Particularly, these searches increased after the October attack which led to the death of 11 Jews and other injuries. The authors insinuate that there was an increase in anti-Semitic google searches after every attack also citing Passover shooting in Poway, in California in April. However, it was not balanced in reporting violence against Jews people. It used emphasis frames which brings bias on how Jews are perceived and violence against them. Communication application代写**成品

For instance, the repeated use of “Kill Jews,” and “Jews must die” is emphasizing on the vice and hence give it more limelight in the media than necessary. The article failed to balance its reporting by aligning on spreading hate sentiments spread against Jews.

On the other hand, the second article was reported by Holly Yan and Scott McLean on CNN. Communication application代写

It reports on Colorado School shooting that killed a teenager. The authors report on students and other stakeholders view the shooting. It also explains parents’ concerns with recurrent shooting in schools which makes their children vulnerable to attacks. Besides, it discusses the alleged attacker apprehended being aligned to the course to face murder charges. The authors used a direct speech which provided a more balanced view of the report. It does not contain frames that can insinuate impartiality in the report.

The coding frame used words and phrases as used in the text. Communication application代写

I used emphasis on words density and density to identify the frames and bias overlooked by authors. Basically, in my coding frame, five elements helped to verify the presence of frames and bias including article theme, authors own opinion, the use of direct speech, emphasis used, repetition of some text and words, and personal experience. The article by Simon and Sidner has frames and bias through the use of repeated phrases and words. Communication application代写**成品

For instance, the use of “Jews must die,” “kill Jews,” and “I hate Jews,” and other related words has put undue emphasis on the gun violence against Jews. The reporter did not use direct speech and mostly have relied on their research and opinion on the issue which brought about bias in phrases like “searched at alarmingly higher rates than normal” and raises the question on what is normal about searching for such phrases.

The coding frame was critical in analyzing the content of the articles.  Communication application代写

Using the various codes like “hatred” and “opinion” I was able to capture frames and bias in the article by Simon and Sidner. The code found a systematic use of frames which insinuated on popularizing violence against Jews in America.

Notably, carrying was not as easy as I thought.  Communication application代写

It required deep analysis on the content coupled with intuition and personal experience to capture any frames and bias in the text. The knowledge of conducting content analysis is essential in media and even at personal reading for purposes of interpretation of texts. Reason being, reporting can be subjective and hence biased to give the perspective of the author. Also, content analysis can be done intuitively as one reads the text. The method is widely used in the media industry to avoid misrepresentation of facts.

Practical Task: Evaluating Research Ethics Communication application代写

The practical task will evaluate ethical considerations in data collection from Facebook. Below is a response table showing features for research, data collection practice and ethical considerations. The research will be based on the four basic ethical principles including:

i. Avoid harm to participants

ii. Ensure informed consent of participants

iii. Respect the privacy of participants

iv. Avoid the use of deception

Feature Identify data collection practice Ethical consideration


The type of status updates. Using a person’s timeline information, I can access their posts and which can be used to predict his/her character. The research considers the privacy issues of the user. The ethical considerations are to get informed consent to use their timeline information without any deceptions.


The profile contains data about the user which include contact, date of birth, educations, relationships and more which are considered private by the Facebook policy of use. The research will consider getting informed consent and privacy. Some of the ethical consideration include to use the data for the intended purpose only and treat it with confidentiality. The breach of the above considerations and principles can result to harm to the user or legal suit.

Likes and following

These are the groups, pages, and other items that the user mostly use or follow in the timeline. The research will consider privacy for the data collected. The ethical considerations include the application of these data for the right and intended use of the data. The data should not be used to harm the user.

Photo album

These are the pictures uploads by the user and mostly reveal who the user is physical resident, relationships, culture, residents, social economic elements and more. The research should consider to get informed consent from the user and maintain privacy. The use raises ethical consideration of the actual application of the collected data which would not harm the user.
























The practical exercise is fundamental and applicable in all research practices. Communication application代写

The knowledge about ethical practices is key to dealing with and acquiring data from participants. The practice has not only opened up my mind on the issues of ethics and ethical principles but also its actual application in real research. Notably, the application of ethical issues in social media research is full of ethical dilemmas and challenges on the application of ethical principles and the assurance of privacy and protection of the user data. Communication application代写**成品

The whole research can be marred by mistrust that the user may have to the researcher. Also, some of the information that is public in a user profile can be treated as private as they constitute the user details and use. As such, it becomes difficult to get informed consent as well as to differentiate which information to treat as private depending on their availability. Nevertheless, ethical considerations are critical in all research and should be observed to avoid harm to the user.

Part B  Communication application代写

In this section, I will discuss much my reflexive practice in part A and what I have learned throughout the whole course, experience in practice tasks and applicability of the knowledge gained to my field of study and profession. Through a reflexive approach, I will be able to evaluate my understanding of the applied research methods by identifying my strengths and weaknesses. The reflexive methodology involves streamlining the relationship between the researcher and the research (Attia and Edge 2017, p. 34). It is critical in the development of the researcher by the use of conscious oriented approach to contextualize and theorize practice. Communication application代写**成品

The methodology will allow me to self-evaluation as a researcher and a student. Hence, I can work on my weaknesses in the various research methods. More so, it will stretch me to think critically of the assessment and the application of the wide ally of knowledge gathered. As such, as a novice researcher, this reflexive essay expands my scope of view on research methods, their actual applications, my preferences in their use and various methods available use in domains research fields.

Therefore, this reflexive essay will look into the reflection on practical tasks and will cover content analysis.  Communication application代写

App work through the method and evaluating research ethics. In each of the practical task much on understanding the method, its applicability, lessons, and personal experience will be discussed. It will be followed by the reflexivity which will look at the professional utilization of the knowledge gained in the practice. Here, I will account for how I can use each of the tasks to advance my career. Besides, I will provide insight into the use of applied research skills in my professional pathways. The essay is a hallmark of my knowledge and skills in the practice and application of various research methods.

Practical Task Reflection      Communication application代写

Although I had prior knowledge of research methods and various methodologies used in research, never before have I thought about App walk through the method. Surprisingly, it has never occurred to me that such a method actually exists. Thus, before I could even embark on the Facebook walkthrough research, I had to orient myself with the research method using an in-depth reading of the article by Light, Burgess, and Duguay (2018, p. 1-27). Communication application代写**成品

According to the writers, the walkthrough method involves “establishing an app’s environment for expected use by identifying and describing its visions, operating model, and modes of governance.” It is an emerging method after the proliferation of the internet and smartphones. The article gives me a new perspective on how to analyze mobile and internet apps. I was surprised that the method is fundamental to ensure better usability of software and mobile apps. The application of the walkthrough method cannot be underestimated at least not in the modern needs for better user interactivity for an improved experience.

As a new researcher using walkthrough a method, I found it challenging and interesting at the same time.    Communication application代写

Challenging because it was my first time to use the method and interesting because I was gaining new knowledge in the world of research methodologies. I become so immersed in the method by the fact that I am tech savvy. The ability to understand how developers use the six perspectives in app development for better client experience as well as for better return was thrilling. Also, I gained on how digital media environment is transformed across various domains involving social, culture, politics, and economics.

Besides, the method has added to my preferences in research methods for analyzing apps. I can test the usability of mobile apps which is essential in writing their reviews by use of the walkthrough method.

On the other hand, content analysis was one of my main challenge in all three practical tasks.      Communication application代写

I thought I have enough experience on the method to handle it efficiently with ease but I was wrong. Most of the procedures and elements needed were unknown to me. The method is rich in details and requires one to have prior experience beside natural intuition about the theme of the media article. To understand better about content analysis method, I had to consult the work of Stemler which focuses on the application of content analysis in education, criminology and social intelligence (2015, p. 5).

Also, though the text is straight forward, I found it challenging to carry out the coding frame. The practice imparted more than just experience but also insight on understanding contents without literary analyzing them.

The practical aspect of the content analysis method was very engaging and interesting to practice and learn.      Communication application代写

It requires critical thinking, creativity, and intuitive mind. The method was challenging, but the engagement maintains motivation and momentum high. I created codes, tables and carried out analytical reading that made me feel empowered. I found that the coding frame does not have to follow a particular pattern but depends on the theme of text being analyzed. Without clear and well-formatted coding system, it becomes difficult to catch bias and frames, especially for a novice researcher.

I learned that videos and films can also be analyzed using screenshots or content transcriptions. Thus, analyzing text is easier than video and films which require additional work of transcription or taking screenshots.

Communication application代写
Communication application代写

It was my first time to coding frame.    Communication application代写

It has never occurred to me how analytical skills are essential in the content analysis method. Close reading is critical to capture any detail that might suggest a frame or a bias. To get a bias might be easy but frames are difficult as they are dependent on the research experiences and intuitive reading of the text. For instance, when reading the article by Simon and Sidner (2019), I was required to watch a video clip by CNN and relate it with a close reading of the text. Then realized that I could easily overlook some details which might otherwise have a negative frame on gun violence against Jews people in the United States. Communication application代写**成品

For instance, if I was not keen enough, I would not have noticed the article is popularizing hate against Jews people which has perpetuated American history. As such, although the reporting not biased, it gave more of undue publicity on the atrocities being done to the Jews American. Nevertheless, I was a great experience as a novice researcher to practice the coding frame to identify frames and bias in the article.

Additionally, evaluating research ethics became one of my best practice in the three assessments.    Communication application代写

In this context, using Facebook as the conventional social media. I had previously covered topics on ethics in research but have never related that in social media research. It is interesting and engaging how ethics can be applied in social media. According to Warrell, and Jacobsen (2014, p. 24), online research ethics lacks adequate guideline to solve the underlying privacy and consent issues due to availability of data online. The data that is available has been given out the social media users which raises the question on their ownership and legal and ethical implications of their use. Communication application代写**成品

Reason being, it has become difficult to get consent for already available data and hence protecting the owner by getting informed consent has been a bone of contention. In this regard, the author questions the issue of whether internet data can be considered a human subject in research owing to the fact that the data is publicly available. As such, defining the public versus private space has become vague in terms of obtaining consent, privacy, and protection. Communication application代写**成品

Furthermore, it has never occurred to me how challenging research ethics are in terms of an ethical dilemma on the data used in social media research.

In this regard, I assumed ethics to mean the acceptable practice in research that ensures the protection of participants (Resnik, 2015). The research has expanded my scope on various facets that can be used to query the research. For instance, the use of profile, timelines, and photos which are in the public domain raised the issue of ethical adherence in as far as acquiring informed consent and privacy are concerned. Communication application代写**成品

The questions that I asked myself is what if I use them just by virtue of the profile and photos are visible in public? Do I need informed consent to see them? The principle of privacy and informed consent are vague in their applicability in social media research. However, I assumed that, since some data are visible to the public, I use them in the research but prior to acquiring consent from participants so as to assure them on their privacy in the research.

Besides the observation of ethical issues, it occurred there are legal implications in the internet research approach.    Communication application代写

Schroeder (2014, p. 2) used the concept of big data and its surrounding ethical and social issues. The research ethics and the legal issues using big data has an unprecedented focus on issues of free will in the midst of large domains of knowledge. It was quite a new perspective for me and which has led to confusion on the acquisition and use of various data derived from a pool of data given at free will by users. As the bottom line, research ethics are critical and should be applied whenever necessary to avoid a breach of ethical principles and legal issues.

Reflexivity  Communication application代写

The practice tasks involving research methods is a valuable exercise and the benefits that accrue cannot be underestimated. Knowledge is essential for use in my professional excellence. As a researcher, I have the responsibility to conduct research that can be dependable by other scholarly bodies not only because it is accurate but also it communicating and understandable. The practice assessments have broadened my perception of the importance of research. Communication application代写**成品

The book by Patten and Newhart (2017) outlines the overview on how to conduct research and its importance as a contributor to knowledge-base. As a new professional in research methods, this assessment comes at an opportune moment when I can apply the methods to research various topics on modern best practices in management and communication. I am able to position myself in an active role in research as an influence on the intended outcome.

After taking the applied research methods and practice.    Communication application代写

I feel prepared to approach industrial level research such as the advertisement effects on consumers. The knowledge gained in the walkthrough method is essential in understanding business software that is useful in making work easier. As professional I can be given a role to evaluate apps that can benefit my organization the most. The use of content analysis sharpens my analytical skills which are key to a successful career. Besides, I exercised my creativity, critical thinking, and skills which are fundamental in problem-solving at work. As such, during research, I can make informed decisions which will add credibility to my roles. Communication application代写**成品

Also, important is how ethics affects research in relation to the relationship between the researcher, research and participants. I realize that as research, I am central to making ethical decisions that impact on the data collected. Thus, I would be able to work within ethical frameworks in my roles and critically make decisions within the framework of best research practices. As professional I need to continuously practice research methodologies and updates on changes for a successful career.

Future Reflection        Communication application代写

I intend to advance my skills in digital marketing. Digital marketing involves internet research for customer targeting for products (Kannan, 2017, p. 23). The knowledge of research ethics particularly in social media will help me pursue this course aware of the underlying ethical issues as well as legal issues as explained by Nunan and Di Domenico (2013, p. 510). The practice of research ethics has expanded my understanding of internet marketing and hence broadened my career pathways. Before gaining this research knowledge, my main focus was only data collection or purchase from the third parties without ethical considerations. Communication application代写**成品

I was indiscriminately using the user data without request for consent and disregarded privacy to their data. Overlooking these internet research ethics exposed me to potential legal suits. The data collected was also vulnerable to being discredited as illegal. Therefore, learning and completion of this assessment have set on the trajectory of better performance in my online activities. I will be able to acquire legit and credible data that can be used by other researchers. The shift research online research approach will not only advance my adverting career but will improve my professionalism and performance.

Without any doubt, I can position myself as a professional researcher.  Communication application代写

I can use various research methods depending on the type of research and desired results. I have demonstrated this using practical tasks in part A. The practice and the reflexive essay has extended my creativity, problem-solving and skills as well as intuition. I have become an all-rounded researcher who can use the research to prove any interesting phenomena in my career. As a result, I can be able to approach complex problems and get rational solutions. Through this reflection, I have become a refined researcher who can produce credible and verifiable results. Thus, practice and reflection are cornerstones to the skills and knowledge gained.

References    Communication application代写

Attia, M. and Edge, J., 2017. Be (com) ing a reflexive researcher: a developmental approach to research methodology. Open Review of Educational Research, 4(1), pp.33-45.

Dehghani, M. and Tumer, M., 2015. A research on the effectiveness of Facebook advertising on enhancing the purchase intention of consumers. Computers in Human Behavior, 49, pp.597-600. n.d. About. Available from

Hensel, A. 2018. Facebook revenue jumps 33% to $13.73 billion in Q3 2018, but growth continues to slow. Available from

Kannan, P.K., 2017. Digital marketing: A framework, review, and research agenda. International Journal of Research in Marketing, 34(1), pp.22-45.


Light, B., Burgess, J. and Duguay, S., 2018. The walkthrough method: An approach to the study of apps. New Media & Society, 20(3), pp.881-900.

Patten, M.L. and Newhart, M., 2017. Understanding research methods: An overview of the essentials. Routledge.

Resnik, D.B., 2015. What is ethics in research & why is it important. National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences.

Stemler, S.E., 2015. Content analysis. Emerging trends in the social and behavioral sciences: An Interdisciplinary, Searchable, and Linkable Resource, pp.1-14.

Schroeder, R., 2014. Big Data and the brave new world of social media research. Big Data & Society, 1(2), pp. 1-11.

Nunan, D. and Di Domenico, M., 2013. Market research and the ethics of big data. International Journal of Market Research, 55(4), pp.505-520.

Simon, M. and Sidner, S. 2019. A gunman slaughtered 11 Jewish worshippers. Then people hunted for hate online. Available at

Warrell, J. and Jacobsen, M., 2014. Internet research ethics and the policy gap for ethical practice in online research settings. 44(1), pp. 22 – 37.

Yan, H. and McLean, S. 2019. 15-year-old school shooting survivor says it’s ‘scary not knowing what’s going to come next’. Available at


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