Article Critique

Article Critique代写 The purpose of this research is to present a critical analysis of two research papers by Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) and Meichsner…

1.1. Introduction

The purpose of this research is to present a critical analysis of two research papers by Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) and Meichsner et al., (2018). An overview of the independent research methods of both these articles show contrasting trends. The Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) article make use of a qualitative primary data dominant research methodology.  The Meichsner et al., (2018) method on the other hand makes use of mixed methods research design with a quantitative-dominant research strategy. The use of alternative research designs identifies the need for different approaches to methodological rigour assessment. This research will assess the research paradigm, research method, data collection, analysis and validity of the research for each of these articles. This is followed by a summation of rigour improvement recommendations for these articles.

1.2. Article Critique I Article Critique代写

Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) adopt an interpretivist research paradigm to conduct the research. Weber (2004) contend that research ontology is defined as an approach which helps identify the nature of existence and nature of reality. In an interpretivist perspective, there is no single reality that exists and interpretation and perception drives reality assessment. Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) present an excellent argument on the need for interpretation and engagement.  Their introduction and the review of literature highlight elements of leadership gap in the hospitality sector with a focus on progression through the career ladder. The authors conclude that the use of an exploratory research approach was needed to understand the factors which hinder or facilitate women promotion to management.

This requires a subjective analysis of the needs of the individual stakeholders. The use of an interpretivist research paradigm is considered ideal as it supports the notion that women in hotel management positions face varying levels of challenges including institutional, individual and intersection drivers (Hussein, 2015). The nature of these challenges could be unique to each participant in the research and providing a subjective  approach to assessment of these drivers can be beneficial. Clearly, there is a social construction of the potential challenges and a contextual assessment of these drivers is important.

From an interpretivist perspective, knowledge can be context driven and ideographic.  Article Critique代写

In this research, the use of a knowledge driven  approach can help determine the specific elements which lead to the career development barriers. While general trends on employment in higher management positions is known through the phase I research, the individual features which may impact the gender barriers are relatively limited.

The research adopts a qualitative research methodology. The use of a qualitative research methodology involves collection of non-numerical data on a specific research subject (Creswell and Creswell, 2017). The use of this method is considered ideal in interpretivist research as it provides an interactive relationship between the subject and the research. The goal of qualitative research is to extend beyond arguments of ‘what’ to ‘why’.

Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) present this argument in an effective manner. They engender their argument in the perspective gender is a social structure and understanding hospitality career trajectory and perception of glass ceiling effect requires understanding of ‘why’ their professional trajectory may get delayed and ‘how’ (e.g. due to position characteristics, gendered, positions, work-life issues).  Though Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) take commendable efforts to explain the exploratory nature of research the link between Phase I and Phase II research is not well explained. The reason for the qualitative research approach can be better highlighted. For example, in a comparative research on the career trajectory of women professionals, Walsh et al., (2016) adopt a similar social approach but highlight the challenges faced when a quantitative research methodology is adopted. A similar rational would have helped enhance the support for the qualitative research method. Article Critique代写

The data collection instrument used is semi-structured face to face interview.

McIntosh and Morse (2015) contends that the use of this approach to interviewing can help balance the need for insight while keeping the discussing structured and focused on a specific element. Therefore, this essay concludes that the choice of Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) is an ideal one.  The authors also conclude that a snowball sampling approach is adopted with a targeted recruitment of female executives from the Spanish Confederation of Hotels and Tourist Accommodation (CEHAT). Clearly, the use of snowball sampling is considered most ideal in cases where the stakeholders can help identify the right participants. Given the focus on a specific research population, this approach is considered as the most ideal research sampling approach (Palinkas et al., 2015).

The authors argue that the decision on sample size was made using an information saturation strategy. An important critique here is that the saturation in qualitative research is not substantiated by the key parameters used.    As Saunders et al. (2018) concludes saturation should be operationalised and explained in the context of a specific research as it can help in enhancing research generalisability. The participant characteristics are explained with respect to demographics, career trajectory and type of organisation in which they are currently employed.

The data analysis is carried out using a thematic analysis. Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) provides details on the steps of the thematic analysis and identifies the underlying familiarisation, data reduction and pattern recognition trends. They also highlight the need for two-step coding processes. The rationale for the choice of data analysis method is well established supporting the choice of a manual coding methods. Article Critique代写

The findings of the study are organised using the inductive analysis framework which was identified through research gap.

The findings summarise key trends in research while using quotations were needed. However, a potential challenge with this strategy is that it does not give a thematic map of potential challenges’ example, individual level factor assess  ambition, self-confidence and other self-imposed barriers.  The use of a thematic map to summarise these findings would help the reader better address the need for better focus. The findings are strong in their effort to balance discussion with the findings. Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) not only highlight the views expressed by participants of their own research but also link it to other findings and previous evidences.

This can help highlight similarities and differences a better inform trends on this process. The findings could have been strengthened through an effective thematic mapping as adopted by other authors (e.g. Clark, 2006). An independent discussion on the interaction between these factors could have strengthened the quality of the discussion process.

Qualitative research methodological rigour can be attributed to a range of factors.  For example, credibility is one tool that helps improve the methodological rigour. According to Shenton (2004) credibility can be achieved if the researcher is able to link their findings with reality. In the context of the Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) interview the researcher provides the challenges faced in recruitment, identifies the best possible sampling outcome to reaching out to the right correspondents. Also, they also use an analyst triangulation method. As Shaton (2004) conclude, the use of an analyst triangulation involves using multiple researchers to code the data.

The other element of validity in qualitative research is transferability. Article Critique代写

Nobel and Smith (2015) conclude that transferability in qualitative research is essential as it helps in providing contextual information on the underlying research process and on which the reader can duplicate in the following research. Transferability in the study of Segovia-Perez et al., (2018) shows that details on participant, involved, type of analysis, participant profile and potential scope of the findings are clearly detailed. The methodology can therefore be replicated. The final element in the qualitative research method is generalisability.

Generalisability of research calls for identifying if these findings can be generalised to any population. In this research, no national culture specific or organisational culture specific drivers have been used. Similarly, no specific ethnicity or age group is also targeted. Therefore, it is argued that the use of a heterogenous sample strongly enhances the overall generalisability of the study findings.

The research concludes with details on practical implications, research implications and associated study limitations. The structuring of these recommendations can aid stakeholders in the hospitality industry to address potential gendered issues. However, ethical issues linked to confidentiality or anonymity are not clearly explained. Though ethical clearance is gained, implications on qualitative research need to be better examined and explained.


1.3. Article Critique II Article Critique代写

The second research article chosen for critique is the study by Meichsner et al., (2018). The authors attempt to examine the future of African air transport through  case analysis of the Ethiopian Airlines. The authors depend on both primary and secondary data and use both quantitative and qualitative methods.

This research contends that the research paradigm that is adopted in the study is a positivist paradigm. A positivist research philosophy adopts the ontological position that there is a single external reality. As Weber (2004) concludes the success of the positivist strategy is associated to the argument that values and facts are distinct. This approach is most ideal in the context of the Meichsner et al., (2018) approach as the goal is to present factual assessment of air transport challenges in Africa and present quantification of the successful airline strategy that is present. This approach requires the choice of a philosophy that supports facts rather than opinions or views.

Epistemology on the other hand helps identify ‘what and how’ a researcher can go about gaining knowledge on the subject. In positivism, the epistemological outlook is objectivism. The researcher who follows a positivist research paradigm would go forward impartially in order to determine absolute knowledge.  In their assessment of the African market, Meschsner et al., (2018) conclude that though there are forecasts available regarding growth, detailed analysis of the market  continues to remain lacking. They use an effective literature mapping approach o identify the need, potential and challenges in the African aviation market. the map is influenced by findings from other studies and is not driven by researcher interpretation of the same. Therefore, it is concluded that a positivist research paradigm is the right approach in this case.

The study adopts a mixed methods research design. Article Critique代写

According to Romm and Ngulube (2015), there is rise in use of mixed methods research design helps balance the strengths and weaknesses of the qualitative and quantitative research design. Flick (2015) also contends that mixed methods can be either qualitative dominant, quantitative dominant or equal mix of the two.  Meichsner et al., (2018) adopted a quantitative dominant mixed methods research. This approach predominantly used quantitative data but depends on qualitative inputs to substantiate relevant details. Though there is  significant information available market share, there is  a need for qualitative information to provide details on airline specific information.

The research also focused on Ethiopian Airlines as a case study. According to Yin (2011), the use of the case study methodology can be effective in conducting unit level analysis of specific elements. Therefore, when a case study methodology is adopted it is essential that clear information on the choice of case study and its uniqueness is explained. The research does not take any effort to highlight the need for focus on the Ethiopian Airlines.

The use of a pure quantitative research method is ideal in considering the market share. The aggregate position of various players in the market was calculated to identify the position of the airlines int he market. however, the reason for choice of this method was not clear. For instance, the authors conclude that the use of a Product and Organizational Architecture (POA) is ideal to assess market share.

However, the reasons for the same is not effectively identified.  Article Critique代写

Mason and Morrison (2008) for instance, conclude that the use of the POA structure can help define the firm business model and its competitive environment. The sue of the product architecture highlights underlying core benefits while the product design helps assess the organisational structure  which influence firm position. The relevance of this approach to the African airline segment could have been better explained. Similarly, the need for pareto analysis or the cluster analysis is also not highlighted. Guiffrida and Messina (2015) in their assessment of business model conclude that the use of pareto analysis can help in market size assessment and help improve nature of service provision. No such references to the implications of pareto analysis is provided.

Article Critique代写
Article Critique代写

In their diagrammatic representation of the research methodology, the authors identify the use of qualitative methods predominantly to assess overall effectiveness of or success of the airline strategy in Africa. All other elements including operating environment, business model and strategy collected and analysed using quantitative methods.  No rationale on the focus only on success is given. Cleary, the use of the qualitative data in this context is to  support the quantitative data (Flick, 2015). The need for the interview is to help fill gaps in research data gathering given sparsity in access. Such details should have been provided to the readers to help them better understand the research methodology.

The data collection for the quantitative research is through  secondary data. Article Critique代写

Secondary data analysis involves identification of previously published data for the purpose of new analysis (Choy, 2014).  Both inferential and descriptive data collection methods are used. Interestingly, there is dependence on direct data and simple metrics like tabulation rather than actual analysis. For instance, the positioning map information on connectivity and stage length is directly mapped from secondary sources. The POA assessment however is carried out using  inferential statistical methods.

The authors provide detailed summations of the applied indices and benchmarking metrics used for various airlines. While this helps in defining the variables and can aid in the SPSS descriptive and inferential data analysis, the rigour is affected by clarity in source of data. For example, the authors believe that proftability index, revenue index and connectivity index for each of the stakeholder airlines is to be gathered.  The source for each of these indices if provided would have enhanced the effectiveness of the study findings. The presentation of quantitative data is through the use of figures and tables whose relevance to Ethiopian Airlines continues to remain less addressed.

The case analysis of Ethiopian airlines in particular involves the use of both secondary and primary data.

Secondary data helps summarises networks structures, hub development modes and overall competitive comparison with other players.  The qualitative data presumable is used to help provide support to assertions. For instance, Flick (2015) identify that the air service agreement within Africa are a work in progress and that improving the quality of such service an agreement is key to the success of Ethiopian airlines through information gathered from the interview.  However, the nature of questions, the type of responses gained, and the nature of analysis are non-existent. There is no information on the type of questions posed, the steps adopted in the methodology. Article Critique代写

Validity of a quantitative secondary data collection approach rests on content validity. Johnston (2017) contends that content validity can be assured if the type of conclusions gathered are referenced and drawn through inferences made in the research. There are sweeping statements made in the Meichsner et al. (2018) article which do not support this assertion. One example is “The research formulated a number of principles that flow from the analysis carried out above that will be for an African carrier to be successful and prosperous” (Miechsner et al., 2018, pg. 193).  The nature of these principles or the  type of analysis which led to these principles continue to remain unclear. There are challenges in meeting criterion validity  assessment of POA or cluster analysis findings as there is no evidence of the nature of data collection for independent indices in each of these elements.

Finally, the Meichsner et al., (2018) present a conclusion which highlights some overarching recommendations.

These include creating blue prints which can establish strong intra-African networks to help redistribute incoming intercontinental traffic.  However, the actual relevance of these recommendations to Ethiopian airlines in particular is not clear. The authors do not acknowledge the inherent limitations of the research or the need for future research on the subject. Overall, the conclusion is not well organised and has major scopes of improvement. There is acknowledgment of contributors to the research and all external references are cited which shows adherence to ethical principles of secondary data collection. Article Critique代写

Overall, this research critique concludes that though there is an interesting discussion made in an emerging African aviation market , the overall structure of the research is confusing and one that needs better methodological rigour. The lack of structuring of the research findings based on either research design (e.g. qualitative or quantitative) or data collection (e.g. primary or secondary) is a cause for concern.


1.4. Conclusion and recommendation Article Critique代写

A comparison of these studies shows that Article I shows better methodological rigour.  The article is well organised and takes efforts to provide the right mind-map and sign-posting for the reader. Some key recommendation areas for improvement for this article is providing details on ethical drivers which may influence data collection and providing a detailed interview appendix. The presence of the detailed interview schedule can aid in enhancing research generalisability.

On the other hand, Article II shows challenges regarding methodological rigour. The article needs to be better organised with respect to various sections. The most important recommendation in this segment is the need to clearly detail the research participants who are involved, ethical issues, validity and reliability issues. There is also no evidence of self-reflection which is a major area of concern. The areas of research limitations and improvement in the form of future research are essential to improve the methodological rigour. The research graphs used should also be provided with better explanations to help the reader link them with the research text.

1.5. References Article Critique代写

Choy, L.T., 2014. The strengths and weaknesses of research methodology: Comparison and complimentary between qualitative and quantitative approaches. IOSR Journal of Humanities and Social Science19(4), pp.99-104.

Clarke, A., 2006. Qualitative interviewing:encountering ethical issues and challenges. Nurse Researcher , 13, pp.19-29.

Flick, U. (2015). Introducing research methodology: A beginner’s guide to doing a research project. Sage.

Guiffrida, A. L. and Messina, M. J., 2015. Quality Control Techniques in Services Marketing. In Proceedings of the 1988 International Conference of Services Marketing. Springer, Cham, pp. 223-234.

Johnston, M. P., 2017. Secondary data analysis: A method of which the time has come. Qualitative and Quantitative Methods in Libraries3(3), pp.619-626.

Mason, K. J. and Morrison, W. G., 2008. Towards a means of consistently comparing airline business models with an application to the ‘low cost’airline sector. Research in Transportation Economics24(1), pp.75-84.

McIntosh, M. J. and Morse, J. M., 2015. Situating and constructing diversity in semi-structured interviews. Global qualitative nursing research2, 2333393615597674.

Palinkas, L. A., Horwitz, S. M., Green, C. A., Wisdom, J. P., Duan, N. and Hoagwood, K., 2015. Purposeful sampling for qualitative data collection and analysis in mixed method implementation research. Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Services Research42(5), pp.533-544.

Romm, N.R. and Ngulube, P., 2015. Mixed methods research. Addressing research challenges: Making headway for emerging researchers.

Saunders, B., Sim, J., Kingstone, T., Baker, S., Waterfield, J., Bartlam, B.  and Jinks, C., 2e018. Saturation in qualitative research: exploring its conceptualization and operationalization. Quality and Quantity52(4), pp.1893-1907.

Segovia-Pérez, M., Figueroa-Domecq, C., Fuentes-Moraleda, L. and Muñoz-Mazón, A., 2019. Incorporating a gender approach in the hospitality industry: Female executives’ perceptions. International Journal of Hospitality Management76, pp.184-193.

Shenton, A. K., 2004. Strategies for ensuring trustworthiness in qualitative research projects. Education for Information22(2), pp.63-75.

Walsh, K., Fleming, S. S. and Enz, C. A., 2016. Give and you shall receive: investing in the careers of women professionals. Career Development International21(2), pp.193-211.

Weber, R., 2004. The Rhetoric of Positivism Versus Interpretivism: A Personal View 1. MIS quarterly28(1), III.

Yin, R. K., 2011. Applications of case study research. Sage