Autonomous Vehicle Technology

自动驾驶汽车技术

 

AV技术 Rapid development in the Autonomous vehicle technology has played a role to the imbalance in businesses performance across ···

Abstract

Rapid development in the Autonomous vehicle technology has played a role to the imbalance in businesses performance across all sectors thus causing discrepancies in the revenue gained by a business in a fiscal year. The prevailing explanation for this occurrence is that AVs bring about a reduction in costs of transportation, crash savings, effectively reduce the travelling time and are efficient fuel consumers. Using data from online sources and various books and journals, this article attempts to vouch for the incorporation of the AV technology in the business operations for Food4all for it to successfully compete in the industry.

译文:抽象的 AV技术

自动驾驶汽车技术的快速发展导致了各个行业的业务表现不平衡,从而导致企业在一个财政年度获得的收入存在差异。对这种情况的普遍解释是,自动驾驶汽车降低了运输成本,减少了碰撞事故,有效减少了旅行时间,并且是高效的燃料消费者。本文使用来自在线资源和各种书籍和期刊的数据,试图保证将 AV 技术纳入 Food4all 的业务运营中,以使其在行业中成功竞争。


Introduction

It is with no exception that the transport sector, among others, has been in one way or another. Substantially influenced by new technologies in the communication and robotics division. In light of these occurrences, the likelihood of having autonomous vehicle (AV) technology has since been witnessed. The idea of driverless vehicles aims at reducing the number of crashes constantly reported on roads, consumption of energy. Environmental degradation. Traffic jam and consequently offering the benefit of accessible transport (Saeed, et al., 2016).

Following rapid technological development in communication with the necessity to attend to the elderly’s needs in countries that are developed. AV technology has been viably put in the spotlight. This will essentially cause a shift in the business paradigm. Resorting to the traditional ways of logistics would thus render the business null in the new future. Vehicle automation has been included on the top 10 list of disruptive technologies of the future (Manyika, et al., 2013).

Concerning the release and assimilation of former smart automobile technology like hybrid- electric drive. And automatic transmission, AVs are projected to make up for roughly 50% of vehicles sold, 30% of all the vehicles. As wellas 40% of travels made by vehicles by the year 2040. To that effect, it is very important to have some level of preparedness for these anticipated occurrences to mitigate the challenges that are likely to occur while welcoming the ensuing opportunities (Saeed, et al., 2016). While AV technology is widely used in a number of disciplines. This article aims at shading light to the AV technology from a transportation angle.

译文:介绍 AV技术

毫无例外,运输部门等都以一种或另一种方式受到通信和机器人部门新技术的重大影响。鉴于这些事件,人们见证了拥有自动驾驶汽车 (AV) 技术的可能性。无人驾驶汽车的想法旨在减少道路上不断报告的碰撞次数、能源消耗、环境恶化、交通拥堵,从而提供无障碍交通的好处(Saeed 等人,2016 年)。随着技术的快速发展以及发达国家满足老年人需求的必要性,AV 技术已经成为人们关注的焦点。这将从本质上导致业务范式的转变。在新的未来,诉诸传统的物流方式将导致业务无效。车辆自动化已被列入未来颠覆性技术的前 10 名(Manyika 等人,2013 年)。从混合动力驱动、自动变速器等原有智能汽车技术的释放和吸收来看,预计自动驾驶汽车将占汽车销量的50%左右,占所有汽车的30%,以及汽车出行的40%。 2040 年。为此,非常重要的是为这些预期事件做好一定程度的准备,以减轻可能发生的挑战,同时迎接随之而来的机遇(Saeed 等人,2016 年)。虽然 AV 技术广泛应用于许多学科,但本文旨在从交通角度为 AV 技术遮光。


Food4all’s business portfolio revolves around the collection of otherwise wasted food from commercial companies.

The distribution of food parcels to affluent elderly customers and impoverished Londoners, in an attempt to reduce the local food waste and harness an otherwise disposed of resource. For the start-up phase in London. Food4all has struck a sponsorship deal with an online ride-hailing company that will deliver the crates at low cost to customers. And collects the used crates. Food4all is expected to pay per mile for these deliveries.

Incorporating the idea of autonomous vehicle technology into the delivery system of Food4all would essentially cut on costs related to the contracted online ride-hailing company mentioned above. Wages to the drivers and fuel costs charged to the pay per mile for each delivery. In addition to that, AV technology will aid in promoting the public image of the business by helping in the reduction of the sum of crash incidences taking place in London.

Furthermore, AV is likely to promote Food4all’s Green Business Model ratings by ensuring consumption of fossil waste is reduced. This will in turn serve as a mitigation technique against adverse environmental impacts that come as a result of this kind of energy consumption. The AV technology is designed to overcome the errors likely to occur. As a result of the use of human labor- in this case, the drivers. In so doing, the speed of the whole process is enhanced ensuring the suitability of the perishable otherwise wasted food to its consumers. This ensures healthy standards are in check.

译文:Food4all 的业务组合围绕从商业公司收集其他浪费的食物 AV技术

Food4all 的业务组合围绕从商业公司收集其他浪费的食物以及向富裕的老年客户和贫困的伦敦人分发食品包裹,以试图减少当地的食物浪费并利用以其他方式处置的资源。在伦敦的启动阶段,Food4all 与一家在线叫车公司达成了赞助协议,该公司将以低成本向客户提供板条箱并收集使用过的板条箱。 Food4all 预计将按里程支付这些送货费用。

将自动驾驶汽车技术的理念融入 Food4all 的交付系统中,将从根本上削减与上述签约的网约车公司相关的成本;司机的工资和燃料费用计入每次交付的每英里工资。除此之外,AV 技术将通过帮助减少伦敦发生的撞车事故总数来帮助提升企业的公众形象。此外,AV 可能会通过确保减少化石废物的消耗来提升 Food4all 的绿色商业模式评级。这将反过来作为一种缓解技术,以缓解由于这种能源消耗而产生的不利环境影响。 AV 技术旨在克服因使用人工(在本例中为驾驶员)而可能发生的错误。这样做可以提高整个过程的速度,确保易腐烂的其他浪费食品对其消费者的适用性。这确保了健康标准得到检查。


How Do Autonomous Vehicles Work?

The operation of AV technology is based on 3-phases. A design called “sense-plan-act” that is the basis of several systems of robotics (Behere and Torngren, 2015). The major challenge of these systems lies in their capability to create meaning of the complex ever-changing driving environment (Fagnant and Kockelman, 2015).

The AVs obtain raw information. And data from this driving environment by the use of a variety of sensors, cameras, and radars attached to them. The collected data is then used as an input for the software which then recommends the suitable course of action to take; whether to accelerate or decelerate. To change lanes or maintain them, and, or if it is safe to overtake or cross a pedestrian footpath.

A number of surveillance technologies have been incorporated in an attempt to make this task achievable (Savasturk, et al., 2015). These include; systems such as Lidar and mono or stereo camera systems and a combination of radar technologies.

译文:自动驾驶汽车如何工作? AV技术

AV 技术的运行基于 3 个阶段。一种称为“感知-计划-行为”的设计,它是多个机器人系统的基础(Behere 和 Torngren,2015 年)。这些系统的主要挑战在于它们能够为复杂的不断变化的驾驶环境创造意义(Fagnant 和 Kockelman,2015 年)。AV 获取原始信息。通过使用各种传感器、摄像头和与其相连的雷达,从这种驾驶环境中获取数据。然后将收集的数据用作软件的输入,然后推荐合适的行动方案;是加速还是减速。改变车道或保持车道,以及,或者是否可以安全地超车或穿过人行道。为了实现这一任务,已采用了许多监视技术(Savasturk 等人,2015 年)。这些包括;系统,例如激光雷达和单声道或立体相机系统以及雷达技术的组合。


In order to use the AV technology

The destination is set, the car’s software then determines the best route to follow and starts the car, and off it goes. A rotating LIDAR sensor mounted on the car’s roof performs a surveillance check over a 60m radius around the vehicle. From which a 3D dynamic map of the vehicle’s present environment is created. Sensors to the back left wheel are responsible for the sideways movement monitoring thus responsible for determining the car’s position in relation to the 3D map displayed.

Distances to obstacles are determined by radar technologies mounted at the rear and front bumpers of the car (Kubanova and Kubasakova, 2018). The sensors are connected to the Artificial Intelligence (AI) software in the vehicle which also contains data from Google Street View and camera videos. In addition to that, the AI attempts to simulate human perception and decision-making processes thereby controlling the driving operations like as acceleration, braking, and turning. Google Maps is further linked to the software in the car.

This ensures constant updates on features like traffic lights and signs, and landmarks. It however is worth noting that the system has an override function that enables a human to assume control over the car if need be. Moreover, these vehicles are capable of obtaining information from other vehicles within their vicinity. The information is often related to traffic jams and safety issues. Communicating nodes, that is; other vehicles and roadside features convey communication to the vehicle systems in a linked network thus allowing sharing of information.

译文:为了使用AV技术 AV技术

目的地设定好,汽车的软件然后确定要遵循的最佳路线并启动汽车,然后开走。安装在车顶上的旋转激光雷达传感器在车辆周围 60m 半径范围内执行监视检查。从中创建车辆当前环境的 3D 动态地图。左后轮的传感器负责侧向运动监控,从而负责确定汽车相对于显示的 3D 地图的位置。

与障碍物的距离由安装在汽车后保险杠和前保险杠上的雷达技术决定(Kubanova 和 Kubasakova,2018 年)。传感器连接到车辆中的人工智能 (AI) 软件,该软件还包含来自谷歌街景和摄像头视频的数据。除此之外,人工智能还试图模拟人类的感知和决策过程,从而控制加速、制动和转弯等驾驶操作。谷歌地图进一步链接到车内的软件。

这确保了交通灯和标志以及地标等功能的不断更新。然而,值得注意的是,该系统具有超越功能,可让人类在需要时控制汽车。此外,这些车辆能够从其附近的其他车辆获取信息。这些信息通常与交通拥堵和安全问题有关。通信节点,即;其他车辆和路边设施通过链接网络将通信传送到车辆系统,从而实现信息共享。


Companies That Have Incorporated the AV Technology in Their Systems

Waymo

A subsidiary of the parent company Alphabet Inc. It operates a robot-taxi ride-hailing service in Phoenix aimed to convert its years of research in autonomous vehicles into a for-profit business. The rides are offered in minivans without human attendants on board. The vehicles are monitored remotely with an engineered system that flushes out the air from the minivan after every ride.

Nuro

Nuro is a robotic food delivery company whose autonomous vehicles are designed to ferry fresh food in chilled or heated compartments. The fact that they are autonomous omits the need for conventional controls and the need for a driver’s space. The vehicle operates on the public streets of California in areas like Los Altos, Menlo Park, and Mountain View. The space inside is customized to carry fruits and vegetables, meals already prepared, or freshly baked pizza stacks. Temperature control systems have been installed to make the interior condition adjustable to suit whatever is inside.

This paradigm shift in the nature of driving and logistics of goods makes it possible for people to order groceries, medicines, and packages from the safety of their homes.

Amazon

The company is to offer the scout vehicle product that will be designed to deliver its retail goods. The scout vehicle is an electric six-wheeled robot that drives itself along the sidewalk and opens up as soon it reaches a person’s door. The product has been delivering to Amazon Prime customers located close to the Amazon HQ. Through the Covid-19 pandemic, the AV has been a safe way to deliver goods to its customers.

译文:在其系统中采用 AV 技术的公司 AV技术

威摩

母公司 Alphabet Inc. 的子公司。它在凤凰城经营机器人出租车叫车服务,旨在将其多年对自动驾驶汽车的研究转变为营利性业务。这些游乐设施由小型货车提供,车上没有人员。这些车辆通过一个工程系统进行远程监控,每次骑行后都会从小型货车中排出空气。

努罗

Nuro 是一家机器人食品配送公司,其自动驾驶汽车旨在运送冷藏或加热隔间中的新鲜食物。它们是自主的事实省略了对传统控制的需要和对驾驶员空间的需要。该车辆在加利福尼亚州洛斯阿尔托斯、门洛帕克和山景城等地区的公共街道上行驶。里面的空间是定制的,可以放置水果和蔬菜、已经准备好的饭菜或新鲜出炉的比萨饼堆。安装了温度控制系统,使内部条件可调节以适应内部环境。

这种驾驶和货物物流性质的范式转变使人们可以在安全的家中订购杂货、药品和包裹。

亚马逊

该公司将提供侦察车产品,旨在交付其零售商品。侦察车是一个电动六轮机器人,可以沿着人行道自行行驶,并在到达人门时立即打开。该产品已交付给位于亚马逊总部附近的亚马逊 Prime 客户。在 Covid-19 大流行期间,AV 一直是向客户交付货物的安全方式。


Star Technologies

The company has been a go-to choice for many foods and delivery companies thanks to its product Starship delivery robot. Several US colleges have employed the use of this technology to ship food to students around the campus. Its application during the lockdown period was significant in the delivery of groceries to healthcare workers in Milton Keynes in the UK.  Their sizes- large enough- allow for the carriage of several shopping bags and drink bottles. They are designed to operate at speeds of no more than 4mph along sidewalks.

Eliport

Eliport product is a 4 wheeled electric vehicle designed to operate at speeds equal to that of a walking human on sidewalks and in spaces designated for pedestrians, delivering goods to homes and offices. It is however unique as opposed to other robotic delivery systems in the sense that is capable of loading without human involvement.

AutoX

Its startup featured a grocery delivery trial in California in 2017, by the use of modified cars designed to convey chilled food on the back seats. The groceries delivered could then be accessed through open windows by the respective customers.

The company has over the years expanded to robotic taxis like the ones operated by Waymo (earlier stated) after a signed partnership with Fiat Chrysler Automobiles.

译文:明星科技 AV技术

由于其产品 Starship 送货机器人,该公司一直是许多食品和送货公司的首选。几所美国大学已经使用这种技术向校园周围的学生运送食物。它在锁定期间的应用对于向英国米尔顿凯恩斯的医护人员运送杂货具有重要意义。它们的尺寸 – 足够大 – 允许携带多个购物袋和饮料瓶。它们设计为沿人行道以不超过 4 英里/小时的速度运行。

埃利波特

Eliport 产品是一款 4 轮电动汽车,设计用于在人行道上和专供行人使用的空间中以相当于步行人的速度运行,将货物运送到家庭和办公室。然而,与其他机器人输送系统相比,它是独一无二的,因为它能够在没有人工参与的情况下进行装载。

自动X

它的初创公司于 2017 年在加利福尼亚州进行了杂货配送试验,使用经过改装的汽车,旨在在后座上运送冷藏食品。然后,各个客户可以通过打开的窗口访问交付的杂货。

在与菲亚特克莱斯勒汽车公司签署合作伙伴关系后,该公司多年来一直扩展到像 Waymo 运营的机器人出租车(前面提到的)。


Serve by Postmates

Recently acquired by Uber, it offers a delivery product called Serve. The cart’s design looks futuristic with complete circular LED lights used as its eyes. Its form features a 4 wheeled delivery vehicle built to operate on sidewalks. It contains a Lidar sensor mounted at the top responsible for mapping out its surroundings and aid in its navigation around pedestrians and common a number of sidewalk features like fire hydrants that would otherwise act as obstacles along its path. It has the customer interactive feature- a touch screen display- that aids Serve customers communicate with it. Its carrying capacity is 50lbs.

Robomart

Similar to Nuro, its AVs drive on roads. The self-driven car reveals its content (collection of fresh fruit and vegetables) by opening its sliding doors, ready to be obtained from its shelves. The checkout process is automated and conducted via a smartphone app.

译文:由 Postmates 提供服务 AV技术

最近被 Uber 收购,它提供了一种名为 Serve 的交付产品。 推车的设计看起来很有未来感,它的眼睛是完整的圆形 LED 灯。 它的形式是一辆 4 轮运输车,专为在人行道上操作而设计。 它包含一个安装在顶部的激光雷达传感器,负责绘制周围环境并帮助其在行人周围导航,以及一些常见的人行道功能,如消防栓,否则它们会在其路径上充当障碍物。 它具有客户交互功能 – 触摸屏显示器 – 可帮助 Serve 客户与其进行交流。 它的承载能力是50磅。

机器人商城

与 Nuro 类似,它的自动驾驶汽车在道路上行驶。 自动驾驶汽车通过打开滑动门显示其内容(新鲜水果和蔬菜的集合),准备从货架上获取。 结账过程是自动化的,并通过智能手机应用程序进行。


AV技术
AV技术

Management Considerations

Following the written information above, the management should consider several issues in relation to the incorporation of AV technology.

Firstly, will the AV technology improve or deteriorate safety in terms of crashes? Before a decision is arrived at on whether to employ AV systems in the overall business operations of Food4all, the systems should have the ability to reduce a several of these crashes, thus omitting a majority of traffic delays.

Secondly, as much as the AVs are likely to reduce if not omit traffic delays by a general reduction in the number of crashes, will they also be able to mitigate the congestion burden brought about by issues such as the differences in total kilometers a vehicle travels? The management needs to consider the use of AVs that are connected. A proposition by Dresner & Stone (2004) shows a system based on reservation that would alleviate traffic jams at junctions when the cars are connected.

The points discussed above could cause a delay in the delivery and collection operations of Food4all hence it is very important that these matters are considered before making a decision.

Lastly, how secure is this method of technology? Are the customers guaranteed safe products or will the integrity of the products be compromised along the way? The AV technology omits the need for human involvement in the whole delivery process hence a system of monitoring of the shipped goods needs to be considered.

译文:管理注意事项 AV技术

根据上述书面信息,管理层应考虑与 AV 技术整合相关的几个问题。首先,自动驾驶技术会提高还是降低碰撞方面的安全性?在就是否在 Food4all 的整体业务运营中使用 AV 系统做出决定之前,该系统应该能够减少其中的几次崩溃,从而避免大部分交通延误。其次,尽管自动驾驶汽车如果不能通过普遍减少碰撞次数来消除交通延误,那么它们是否也能够减轻车辆行驶总公里数差异等问题带来的拥堵负担? ?管理层需要考虑使用已连接的 AV。 Dresner & Stone (2004) 提出了一个基于预订的系统,该系统可以在汽车连接时缓解路口的交通拥堵。上面讨论的要点可能会导致 Food4all 的交付和收集操作出现延迟,因此在做出决定之前考虑这些问题非常重要。最后,这种技术方法的安全性如何?客户是否保证产品安全,或者产品的完整性是否会在此过程中受到损害? AV 技术不需要人工参与整个交付过程,因此需要考虑监控运输货物的系统。


Conclusion and Recommendations

It is worth noting that the concept of AV is at the infancy stages of implementation and mass-market release. There are a number of challenges facing the whole process such as the earlier mentioned perception of the ever-changing or rather dynamic driving environment of these autonomous vehicles. Researches are still underway intending to tackle issues relating to system security and integrity, customer acceptance, impacts to the society, communication technologies, planning standards, and policies and ethics. I however believe that its pros outweigh its cons.

From the foregoing, I strongly recommend the application of the AV technology into the general operations of Food4all due to the following reason; they arguably reduce costs of transportation. Fagnant and Kockelman (2015) estimated that, social impacts of AV in crash savings terms, reduction of travelling time, efficiency in fuel consumption, and benefits arising from parking may be as on the high of $2000 per annum per autonomous vehicle and an even higher $4000 incase crash costs are comprehensively  accounted for.

译文:结论和建议 AV技术

值得注意的是,AV 的概念还处于实施和大众市场发布的初级阶段。整个过程面临着许多挑战,例如前面提到的对这些自动驾驶汽车不断变化或相当动态的驾驶环境的看法。旨在解决与系统安全和完整性、客户接受度、对社会的影响、通信技术、规划标准以及政策和道德相关的问题的研究仍在进行中。然而,我相信它的利大于弊。综上所述,我强烈建议将AV技术应用到Food4all的一般运营中,原因如下:他们可以说降低了运输成本。 Fagnant 和 Kockelman (2015) 估计,自动驾驶汽车在节省碰撞事故、减少旅行时间、提高燃料消耗效率和停车带来的好处方面的社会影响可能高达每辆自动驾驶汽车每年 2000 美元,甚至更高综合考虑了 4000 美元的事故成本。


Reference List

Behere, S. and Törngren, M., 2015.  A functional architecture for autonomous driving. In: Proceedings of the first international workshop on automotive software architecture. ACM, pp. 3–10.

Dresner, K. and Stone, P., 2004. Multi-agent traffic management: a reservation-based intersection control mechanism. In: Proceedings of the Third international joint conference on autonomous agents and multi-agent systems, 2004. AAMAS 2004, pp. 530–537

Fagnant, D.J. and Kockelman, K., 2015. Preparing a nation for autonomous vehicles: opportunities, barriers and policy recommendations. Part A 77:167–181

Kubáňová, J. and Kubasáková, I., 2018. The introduction and impact of tachographs on road freight transport.  In: Transport Means – Proceedings of the International Conference, October 2018, 1085–1090.

Manyika, J., Chui, M., Bughin, J., Dobbs, R., Bisson, P. and Marrs, A., 2013. Disruptive technologies: Advances that will transform life, business, and the global economy. McKinsey Global Institute New York

Saeed, A. B., Madjid, T., Mohsen, A. and Tracey, O., 2016. Autonomous vehicles: challenges, opportunities, and future implications for transportation policies. Journal of Modern Transportation 24, p284–303

Savasturk, D., Froehlich, B., Schneider, N., Enzweiler, M. and Franke, U., 2015. A comparison study on vehicle detection in far-infrared and regular images. In: IEEE 18th international conference on intelligent transportation systems (ITSC), IEEE 2015, pp. 1595–1600

 

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