RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS
RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS Racial discrimination has manifested through law enforcement and has mainly affected non-white···
The war on drugs has facilitated to different outcomes that affect various races.
Racial discrimination has manifested through law enforcement and has mainly affected non-white. Additionally, different drugs have been associated with particular races; for instance. The African-Americans are associated with cocaine, the Mexicans are associated with marijuana. And the Chinese are associated with opium.
For years the United States has been on the war against drugs. However, each government in the United States participating in the war seems to be contradicting itself as to why it is engaging in the war. And do not understand the reason as to why they are participating in the war against drugs. It is true that drugs are harmful and have a negative influence on people as compared to the positive.
However, it is essential to understand that not all drugs are the same in terms of effects. And therefore it would be best if each drug would be treated differently from the other. People have different reasons as to why they involve themselves in drugs. For instance, some families wholly depend on selling drugs as that is there a source of income.
In the war against drugs RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS
There has been racial discrimination in the eyes of the Law. For instance, in a case that involved an eighteen-year-old boy whose name was Edward James Clary. was convicted in possession of cocaine whose purpose was to distribute. Edward was a young black male, with limited education. And had no stable source of employment and was charged of being a drug defendant.
His home was situated at the inner town of East St. Louis which was economically devastated. And the largest population was that of African-Americans. Edward was charged for possessing 67.76 grams of cocaine and was passed through the Federal District Court of Eastern Missouri. 20% of the mixture Edward had was pure cocaine.
His fate was already made even before he went to the courtroom as the Law required a ten-year minimum term of imprisonment for anyone caught with more than 50 grams of cocaine. He inevitably faced a strict mandatory minimum sentence of ten years, as it was stated by 21 U.S.C. § 841 (b)(1)(A)(iii) that was often known as the crack statute.
在法律眼中存在种族歧视。例如，在涉及一个名叫爱德华·詹姆斯·克拉里的 18 岁男孩的案件中。因持有可卡因而被定罪，其目的是分发。爱德华是一位年轻的黑人男性，受过有限的教育。并且没有稳定的工作来源并被指控为毒品被告。他的家位于东圣路易斯的内城，那里经济遭受重创。最大的人口是非裔美国人。爱德华被指控持有 67.76 克可卡因，并通过了东密苏里州联邦地方法院。爱德华拥有的混合物中有 20% 是纯可卡因。甚至在他上法庭之前，他的命运就已经注定了，因为法律规定，任何携带超过 50 克可卡因的人都将被处以至少 10 年的监禁。正如 21 U.S.C. § 841 (b)(1)(A)(iii) 这通常被称为裂纹法令。
The crack statute contributed to mass criminalization RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS
incarceration of young African American due to their social and economic status. In 2005, 2.1 million inmates locked up in the United States prisons, and some of them had already served up to 30 years. Through research done by the Mauer projects, a black male born in 2001 has a 32% likelihood of being imprisoned at some stage in his life. While a Hispanic boy has a 17% chance, and a white boy has the probability of 6% (King & Mauer, 2006).
These statistics show how the American government relies heavily on imprisonment. And the burden of punishment is carried by the African –American and to the Hispanics (Fellner, 2009). Criminalization of people of particular races has contributed to a growing racial disparity in the justice administration. And interracial conflicts and racial inequality in the society.
Racial and Ethnic Bias on the war on drugs raises the question. If the United States has an effective. And functioning democracy that treats all the United States citizens with equal justice. The racial and ethnic biasness creates a hierarchy of races that cause the races at the top of the hierarchy to benefit at the expense of the races at the bottom of the hierarchy.
The categories of race determine where the drug defendants will be placed regarding social, economic, and political order. The image painted to the blacks as the police resources mainly reinforce crack users as they target neighborhoods. Whose main occupants are poor black people such as East St. Louis, where Edward used to reside.
由于他们的社会和经济地位，年轻的非裔美国人被监禁。 2005 年，美国监狱关押了 210 万名囚犯，其中一些已经服刑长达 30 年。通过 Mauer 项目所做的研究，2001 年出生的黑人男性在其生命中的某个阶段被监禁的可能性为 32%。西班牙裔男孩的概率为 17%，白人男孩的概率为 6%（King & Mauer，2006）。这些统计数据显示了美国政府如何严重依赖监禁。惩罚的重担由非裔美国人和西班牙裔人承担（Fellner，2009 年）。对特定种族的人进行刑事定罪导致司法行政中的种族差异日益扩大。以及社会中的种族冲突和种族不平等。
It is in such a neighborhood
It is in such a neighborhood that most people drop out of high schools and colleges due to poverty reasons. And therefore, in the long run, they are unable to secure a stable job. The rates of unemployment among the Young black men shoot up from 65% to 72% between the years 2000 and 2004 . And statistics show that 60% of the young black men had already served their time in jail in their mid-thirties (King & Mauer, 2006).
Crack and cocaine offenders are often given severe penalties as compared to any other drug defendant. A crack defendant will face an average term of almost nine years. Which happens to be a longer-term than most violent offenses. In some cases, drug defendants are often faced with death penalties. Which happen to be a violation of human rights.
The justice system needs to review their policies and legislations regarding drug defendants to avoid making other races feel discriminated against . And to also bring unity within the society. A police analyst by the name Ryan King issued a statement saying that in the year 2003. 81% of the people arrested in regards to crack and cocaine offenses were African American.
正是在这样的街区，大多数人因贫困而辍学。因此，从长远来看，他们无法获得稳定的工作。 2000 年至 2004 年间，年轻黑人男性的失业率从 65% 飙升至 72%。统计数据显示，60% 的年轻黑人男性在 30 多岁时已经在监狱服刑（King & Mauer，2006 年）。与任何其他毒品被告相比，快克和可卡因罪犯通常会受到严厉的处罚。一名精明的被告将面临近九年的平均刑期。这恰好是比大多数暴力犯罪更长的时间。在某些情况下，毒品被告经常面临死刑。这恰好是对人权的侵犯。司法系统需要审查他们关于毒品被告的政策和立法，以避免让其他种族感到受到歧视。并在社会中带来团结。一位名叫瑞安·金的警察分析员发表声明说，在 2003 年。81% 的因毒品犯罪和可卡因犯罪被捕的人是非裔美国人。
However RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS
the whites were documented to be the most significant crack. And cocaine users (King, 2006). Due to the difference of the black race distributing the drugs and the white race using the drugs. The defendants of either crime face different sentences. Research that relied on ethnographic observation, incident reports. And needle exchange survey data concluded that. Crack arrest was twice as frequent as the new total of all white preferred drugs such as ecstasy, methamphetamine, and powdered cocaine.
It is evident that the police mainly focus on mixed-race neighborhoods and outdoor activities. Which generally increase the rate at which non-white get arrested. Most of the non-white arrested tends to be uneducated, poor. And most of them usually are convicts of other crimes. Due to social disadvantages that stretch up to convictions and imprisonment. The convicts will be visited on impoverished minority races and populations.
Convicts sentenced to long term duration in prisons tend to worsen social inequalities. Which in turn create broken personal relationships that are charged with more time in the prison. Most states do not give the prisoners the right to vote. Which justifies the agenda on the war on drugs as being political. More to that the justice system terminates parental rights. Depending on the level of the crimes. Some felons are required to register with the police for their behavioral follow up for the remainder of their lives. In contrast, others, especially immigrants, are deported to their country of origin.
The war on drugs is one of the failed projects carried out by the government RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS
Because it has neither reduced the number of people who use drugs. And neither has the circulation of drugs stopped. The solution of imprisonment is also not working as a lot of free people outside the prisons are using drugs. And thus has not reduced any drug consumption. The war on drugs is a failing project because it supports other political agendas.
Racial impact in society has been perceived as legal action and has been treated politically. And not once has the government considered its collateral damage on the war on drugs. New drug products reach their consumers who for a fact are some of the people in the justice administration. However, the government has placed virtual police in the ghettos.
And the poor black people who try to make a living out of selling the drugs end up in jail and at times end up facing a death penalty. This shows how injustice the system is. Some of the political motives that war on drug entail is. The more black people in prison, the less they are in the streets. Thus contributing to minority voting power.
The war on drugs has targeted the poor RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS
And the minority citizens and has often ended up in jail. Most of the drug defendants are either African American or Hispanic. But this does not mean that these are the only two races in America that. Use drugs the law enforcement has created the racial skew by focusing their attention on the non-white. The two races are often under police surveillance.
The Hispanics are customarily associated with marijuana. And in states that have not legalized marijuana. The Hispanics are often under a lot of trouble with the police (“Racial and Ethnic Bias in New Mexico Drug Law Enforcement: A Summary of Preliminary Findings. And Recommendations”, 2017). As for the Chinese who are often associated with opium.
They have their reasons as to why they use opium. The first Chinese immigrants used opium that was originally brought by the European settlers in form of crude opium. Initially, the use of opium was not perceived to be problematic by the whites. The Chinese worked hand in hand with the whites as they provided cheap labor in the gold mines located in the California golden coast in the year 1850.
After the whites discovered that the gold was insufficient. And after the completion of Pacific Railroad that the Chinese aided in its construction. The whites called for the termination of the Chinese immigration. And that is when the hostility towards the Chinese. And racism against them from the whites began (Provine, 2008). This gave rise to the first antinarcotic crusade in the History of the United States.
他们为什么使用鸦片有他们的理由。第一批中国移民使用的鸦片最初是由欧洲定居者以粗鸦片的形式带来的。最初，白人并不认为鸦片的使用有问题。 1850 年，中国人与白人携手合作，为位于加利福尼亚黄金海岸的金矿提供廉价劳动力。后来白人发现金不够用了。太平洋铁路建成后，中国人协助建设。白人呼吁终止中国移民。而这正是对中国人的敌意的时候。白人对他们的种族主义开始了（Provine，2008）。这引发了美国历史上的第一次禁毒运动。
Due to the economic depression wave RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS
The whites demonized the smoking habit of opium by the Chinese. And declared that it was against society’s moral ethics. The whites used the tactic of blaming immoral practices as the root of economic depression. However, even after the economy was back to its track. The Whites continued demonizing the Chinese and their opium smoking.
In a San Francisco newspaper published in 1879. It was stated that “the Chinaman has impoverished our country, degraded our free labor. And hoodlumized our children. He is now destroying our young men with opium.” (“King County Superior Court – King County”, n.d.) This portrayed the Chinese as evil people within the society. Whose intention was to destroy the American society with opium by giving it to the children.
There was a wave of fear regarding the spread of opium smoking from the Chinese slums in China town to the upper classes within the society. The Chinese used opiates. And other active agents produced from the coca plant to treat illnesses such as menstrual cramps and tuberculosis. Housewives prepared homemade recipes using opiate that would serve many health-related purposes.
Moreover, the physicians at the time would treat their patients with opiate. With limited knowledge of the long term effects and the damages the opium would have in the 19th century. The Chinese regarded opiates as an important product for their home remedies.
白人妖魔化了中国人吸食鸦片的习惯。并宣称这是违反社会道德伦理的。白人使用将不道德行为归咎于经济萧条根源的策略。然而，即使在经济重回正轨之后。白人继续妖魔化中国人和他们吸食鸦片。1879 年在旧金山出版的一份报纸上写道：“中国人使我们的国家变得贫穷，贬低了我们的自由劳动。并欺骗了我们的孩子。他现在正在用鸦片摧毁我们的年轻人。” （“金县高等法院 – 金县”，日期不详）这将中国人描绘成社会中的邪恶人物。他们的目的是通过给孩子们鸦片来摧毁美国社会。
鸦片烟从中国城的贫民窟蔓延到社会上层社会，掀起了一股恐慌。中国人使用鸦片。以及由古柯植物生产的其他活性成分，用于治疗月经来潮和肺结核等疾病。家庭主妇使用鸦片制剂自制食谱，可用于许多与健康相关的目的。此外，当时的医生会用阿片类药物治疗他们的病人。由于对鸦片在 19 世纪的长期影响和损害的了解有限。中国人将阿片类药物视为家庭疗法的重要产品。
Poverty is a critical issue as to why races RACIAL AND ETHNIC BIAS ON THE WAR ON DRUGS
Poverty is a critical issue as to why races such as African-Americans, Hispanics. And the Chinese involve themselves with drug-related businesses. Poverty has created incentives for illegal activities such as gambling, prostitution. And selling of drugs, economically deprived groups engage in illegal activities to make their end meet.
However, the government is lenient on other activities such as gambling and prostitution probably because it involves all races. These are acts that were there even before the arrival of the immigrants.
The 1986 anti-drug abuse act presented racial animus that demonstrated the oppression of minority races that contributed to inequality in America (“Race and the Drug War”, n.d.). The purpose of the act is to fight for the upheld system that treats every race equally and with respect. The historical events and experiences have contributed to making racism an integral part of the United States culture. therefore, racism has been and is being practiced in different forms; some forms are direct while others are indirect.
Fellner, J. (2009). Race, Drugs, and Law Enforcement in the United States. Human Rights Watch. Retrieved 29 April 2020, from https://www.hrw.org/news/2009/06/19/race-drugs-and-law-enforcement-united-states#_Part_I:_Race.
King County Superior Court – King County. Kingcounty.gov. Retrieved 30 April 2020, from https://www.kingcounty.gov/courts/superior-court.aspx.
King, R. (2006). Statement of Ryan King on Behalf of the Criminal Justice Policy Foundation, the Open Society Policy Center, Prison Reform International, and The Sentencing Project. Federal Sentencing Reporter, 18(4), 279-283. https://doi.org/10.1525/fsr.2006.18.4.279
King, R., & Mauer, M. (2006). The war on marijuana: The transformation of the war on drugs in the 1990s. Harm Reduction Journal, 3(1), 6. https://doi.org/10.1186/1477-7517-3-6
Provine, D. (2008). Unequal under Law (pp. 15-140). The University of Chicago Press.
Race and the Drug War. Drug Policy Alliance. Retrieved 29 April 2020, from https://www.drugpolicy.org/issues/race-and-drug-war.
Racial and Ethnic Bias in New Mexico Drug Law Enforcement: A Summary of Preliminary Findings and Recommendations. Drug Policy Alliance. (2017). Retrieved 29 April 2020, from https://www.drugpolicy.org/resource/racial-and-ethnic-bias-new-mexico-drug-law-enforcement-summary-preliminary-findings-and.