Propaganda art during World War
War Art War has always contributed to deaths; poverty, physical and psychological stress to the people involved. And disrupts development.···
War entails violence that contributes to destruction to humanity.
War has always contributed to deaths; poverty, physical and psychological stress to the people involved. And disrupts development. To understand the depth of war, artists have expressed their concerns through blended colors, patterns. And textures that depict wartime ideologies, symbols, values, and practices. The pieces of art created by these artists not only entail the response to war but also give a meaning of violence itself.
During World War I, propaganda was used as a tool that would shift the way people think. For instance, propaganda was used to paint the Germans as bad people through the spread of bad things that the Germans did. And people would be angry towards the Germans. In turn, the Americans supported the Britons in the war between Germans and Britons.
However, most of the propaganda was false, and the Germans also took part in propaganda by painting the Britons as bad people. During World War I, propaganda art was successful as an artist would carefully design graphic art, which entailed images and words that would have visual communication and significant effect on the viewers (“How Was Propaganda Used In World War One?”).
During World War II that took place from 1941-1945 War Art
Propaganda art was used to support the war and initiate commitment to an allied victory. During World War II, the Germans used propaganda to stress the expertise of the German army. And depicted the British army and its allies as cowards, butchers, and misguided people. The German propaganda depicted the Russian troops as dehumanized killers who attacked without fearing death.
The British Propaganda through the British Political Warfare Executive (P.W.E.) that was created by Winston Churchill in 1941 focused on spreading propaganda that would damage the confidence of their enemies who were the Germans.
The Office of War Information (O.W.I.) was the birthplace of propaganda in America in 1942 and was created by President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. The Office of War Information encouraged wartime production at home and sabotaged the confidence of their enemies (“World War II Propaganda | American Experience | PBS”).
译文：在 1941 年至 1945 年发生的第二次世界大战期间战争艺术
宣传艺术被用来支持战争并启动对盟军胜利的承诺。 二战期间，德国人通过宣传来强调德国军队的专业知识。 并将英国军队及其盟友描绘成懦夫、屠夫和被误导的人。 德国的宣传将俄罗斯军队描述为非人性化的杀手，他们不惧死亡而发动袭击。1941 年由温斯顿·丘吉尔 (Winston Churchill) 创建的英国政治战执行官 (P.W.E.) 的英国宣传重点是传播会损害德国敌人信心的宣传。战争信息办公室 (O.W.I.) 是 1942 年美国宣传的发源地，由富兰克林·德拉诺·罗斯福总统创建。 战争信息办公室鼓励国内战时生产，破坏敌人的信心（“二战宣传 | 美国经验 | PBS”）。
The use of propaganda stands as a thread that ties the actions taken by the military as one. War Art
Countries tend to rely on propaganda for different reasons during wartime, and due to this. Propaganda tends to motivate the soldiers to fight their enemies, establish hatred in the citizens for the enemy. And encourage the citizens to be in support of their home soldiers.
Countries in conflict use propaganda as a vital tool that pilot if a country will win or lose. The moral ethics, the value of the society. And the goals of a country piloted by the leaders determine how propaganda will be used. Different countries used propaganda during World War I and World War II due to their unique characteristics.
各国在战时往往出于不同的原因依赖宣传，也正因为如此。 宣传往往会激励士兵与敌人作战，在公民中建立对敌人的仇恨。 并鼓励公民支持他们的家乡士兵。处于冲突中的国家将宣传作为一种重要的工具，用来检验一个国家是赢是输。 道德伦理，社会价值。 由领导人主导的国家的目标决定了宣传的使用方式。 不同国家在第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战期间因其独特的特点而使用宣传。
Forms of Propaganda art War Art
Art has been used as a weapon by oppressive governments and corrupt leaders for their selfish motives. While some leaders in the society have used art to enhance the status of the society. Propaganda has been used in different manifestations such as speeches, film, writing, news reports. And the re-writing of History.
Propaganda can be depicted through pieces of art that include metalwork, drawings, paintings, sculptures. And architecture and can be manipulated to portray a particular bit of message that is relevant. There are nine different types of propaganda, and they include. Ad hominem, which focuses on attacking an opponent to the contrary of attacking their arguments. Ad nauseam focus on tirelessly repeating an idea and may begin to be perceived as the truth.
The propaganda of appealing to authority that focuses on appealing to the prominent figures to support an argument, idea, or a position. Appeal to fear; this type of propaganda seeks support by instilling fear, panic. And anxiety in the general population. For instance, Joseph Goebbels a German Nazi politician used this type of propaganda against Theodore Kaufman saying “Germans must perish” to claim that the German’s enemies had claimed the murder of the Germans.
艺术已被专制政府和腐败领导人出于自私的动机用作武器。而社会上的一些领袖则用艺术来提升社会地位。宣传已被用于不同的表现形式，例如演讲、电影、写作、新闻报道。以及历史的改写。宣传可以通过艺术作品来描绘，包括金属制品、素描、绘画、雕塑。并且可以操纵架构来描绘相关的特定信息。有九种不同类型的宣传，其中包括。 Ad hominem，侧重于攻击对手而不是攻击他们的论点。令人作呕的专注于不知疲倦地重复一个想法，并可能开始被视为真理。诉诸权威的宣传，侧重于呼吁知名人士支持论点、想法或立场。诉诸恐惧；这种宣传通过灌输恐惧、恐慌来寻求支持。和一般人群的焦虑。例如，德国纳粹政治家约瑟夫·戈培尔 (Joseph Goebbels) 就使用这种针对西奥多·考夫曼 (Theodore Kaufman) 的宣传说“德国人必须灭亡”，声称德国的敌人声称谋杀了德国人。
Appeal to prejudice War Art
This type of propaganda focus on using emotive terms to attach moral ethics for the public to believe the proposition. But usually is manipulative as it is biased and misleading. Bandwagon; this type of propaganda focuses on persuading the target audience to join in. And work together on the course of action.
Inevitable victory; this type of propaganda invites the people who oppose the bandwagon propaganda to join. And reassure those partially on the bandwagon to stay aboard. Join the crowd. This propaganda reinforces people’s desire to be on the winning side. The technique is used to convince the audience to join the mass movement for their best interest.
The propaganda beautiful people, deals with famous people who make people happy and depicts attractiveness. This type of propaganda is used to make people certain products (Gray). During World war, I and II, different kinds of propagandas were used in art forms to convey a message to the public.
这类宣传侧重于用感情用语附加道德伦理，让公众相信命题。 但通常是操纵性的，因为它带有偏见和误导性。 风靡一时； 这种宣传的重点是说服目标受众加入。并在行动过程中共同努力。不可避免的胜利； 这种宣传邀请反对这种宣传的人加入。 并安抚那些部分紧随其后的人留在船上。 加入人群。 这种宣传强化了人们站在胜利一方的愿望。 该技术用于说服观众为了他们的最大利益而加入群众运动。宣传美人，处理让人开心的名人，描绘魅力。 这种类型的宣传是用来让人们了解某些产品（灰色）。 在第一次世界大战和第二次世界大战期间，以艺术形式使用了不同种类的宣传来向公众传达信息。
Propaganda art during World War I War Art
During World War I, propaganda was used in the form of postcards, trade cards. And posters as it was then that print technology had begun its development. Government from different countries invested in printed media for their propaganda to rally the sentiments of nationalism. And support their countries during the war and encouraged hostility towards the enemy.
Print media was a form of art propaganda that was plastered in classrooms and the city streets. And was used to mobilize people to support the war and publicize victory. During World War I, Harry Ryle Hopp’s poster titled Destroy This Mad Brute: Enlist depicted a German who had destroyed Europe and had set foot on America through the American shores.
The mad brute was pictured wearing a spiked helmet that the Germans used to win World War I. And is embellished with the term “militarism” and is walking onto the shore. Holding the lady of liberty with the left arm. While on the right arm. The ape holds tightly a bloodied baton written in German ‘Kulture’ that stands for culture.
第一次世界大战期间，宣传以明信片、交易卡的形式使用。和海报一样，当时印刷技术已经开始发展。不同国家的政府投资印刷媒体进行宣传，以凝聚民族主义情绪。并在战争期间支持他们的国家并鼓励对敌人的敌意。印刷媒体是一种贴在教室和城市街道上的艺术宣传形式。并被用来动员人民支持战争，宣传胜利。第一次世界大战期间，哈里·莱尔·霍普 (Harry Ryle Hopp) 的海报“摧毁这个疯狂的蛮子：入伍”描绘了一个摧毁欧洲并通过美国海岸踏上美国的德国人。照片中，这个疯狂的野兽戴着德国人用来赢得第一次世界大战的带刺头盔。 并点缀着“军国主义”一词，正走上岸边。左臂抱着自由女神。而在右臂上。猿猴紧紧握着一根染血的指挥棒，用德语“Kulture”书写，代表文化。
The ape has a blonde mustache that perceives the ape to be Kaiser Wilhelm II. War Art
Germany is depicted as mad brute while England and France are depicted as civilization. The heading of the poster “Destroy this mad brute” is hostile and disrespectful to the enemy. The use of ape to represent the enemy is also disrespectful. And the enemy is regarded as being ruthless and unreasonable.
The ape carrying the baton written culture depicts that Germany is destructive and is up to destroying cultures. The background of the poster shows a soft gloom behind the city. Which indicates that it is early in the morning when most people are asleep. And there is no expectation of an attack from the enemy. The term enlist on the poster is a solution given to the Americans. By enlisting in the army, America will be defended from the enemy.
This poster uses the appeal to fear type of propaganda. Which is meant to scare everyone using the brutal image. The propaganda poster encourages men to get enlisted in the army for them to fight and defend their country. The propaganda poster aims at awakening the citizens’ patriotism. And uses the bandwagon type of propaganda to unite the Americans and create hate and fear towards the enemy (“Propaganda Analysis”)
Harry Ryle Hopps propaganda art: Destroy This Mad Brute: Enlist, 1917. War Art
Fritz Erler, who was a German, designed a propaganda poster for the Germans whose title was “Help us win!”. The purpose of this propaganda poster was to publicly encourage the Americans to continue buying the liberty bonds that would facilitate in support of the war. The picture features a German soldier surrounded by an arabesque of barbed wire. And he is covered in dirt, and he is pictured staring into the distance having victorious eyes.
The German soldier is pictured with a steel helmet, a gas mask on his chest. And two grenades in his pouch. The soldier’s eyes have the reflection of small crosses that indicate a Christian symbol and cast him as an important figure and a noble man. The barbed wire is an indication that enemies surrounded Germany at the time. And the Germans were defending themselves during the war. The purpose of the artist was to derive the message that even if Germany was standing alone as represented by the soldier. It had neither lost hope nor had it lost the love for his people.
Fritz Erler’s propaganda poster: help us win!
译文：Harry Ryle Hopps 宣传艺术：Destroy This Mad Brute: Enlist, 1917.
德国人弗里茨·埃勒 (Fritz Erler) 为德国人设计了一张宣传海报，标题为“帮助我们获胜！”。这张宣传海报的目的是公开鼓励美国人继续购买有助于支持战争的自由债券。照片描绘了一名被带刺铁丝网蔓藤花纹包围的德国士兵。他浑身泥土，被描绘成用胜利的眼睛凝视远方。图中德国士兵戴着钢盔，胸前戴着防毒面具。他的袋子里还有两颗手榴弹。士兵的眼睛里有小十字架的倒影，象征着基督教的象征，把他塑造成一个重要人物和一个高尚的人。带刺铁丝网表明当时敌人包围了德国。而德国人在战争期间一直在自卫。艺术家的目的是要传达这样的信息，即使德国是由士兵所代表的孤军奋战。它既没有失去希望，也没有失去对人民的爱。ritz Erler 的宣传海报：帮助我们获胜！
PROPAGANDA ART DURING WORLD WAR II
During World War II that started on 1st September. The Americans were divided on whether to take join efforts with the allies and participate in the war. During World War II, propaganda was used to raise the morale of the citizens. And the troops that participated in World War II. The propaganda posters were also used to decrease the morality of the enemies as they believed that. They broke them using words.
One of the posters that was created by an American painter Weimer Pursell went by the title ‘when you ride alone, you ride with Hitler! Join a car-sharing club today!’ this poster depicts a man driving a car. And the passenger seat has a ghost-like figure that resembles Hitler. The purpose of this poster was to encourage ride sharing and conserve the gas for it to be used during the war.
The poster portrayed rhetorical strategies that contributed to the effectiveness of the message to the citizens of United States (““When You Ride ALONE You Ride With Hitler!” U.S. Government Propaganda Poster, 1943. | Energy History”)
第二次世界大战期间，9 月 1 日开始。美国人在是否与盟国联手参战的问题上存在分歧。在第二次世界大战期间，宣传被用来提高公民的士气。还有参加过二战的军队。宣传海报也被用来降低敌人的道德，因为他们相信。他们用文字打破了它们。美国画家魏默珀塞尔创作的其中一张海报的标题是“当你独自骑行时，你和希特勒一起骑行！今天就加入一个汽车共享俱乐部！”这张海报描绘了一个男人开车。并且副驾驶座上有一个类似希特勒的幽灵般的身影。这张海报的目的是鼓励拼车并节省汽油以供战争期间使用。海报描绘了有助于向美国公民传达信息的有效性的修辞策略（“当你独自骑行时，你与希特勒一起骑行！”美国政府宣传海报，1943 年。| 能源历史“）
Weimer Pursell propaganda art: War Art
When you ride alone, you ride with Hitler
The propaganda poster whose title is ‘Together we can do it. Keep ‘em firing!’ was created by J. Howard Miller in 1942 during World War II. The poster aimed to encourage unity between management and labor. Moreover the poster aimed at raising the morale of the workers. And reduce absenteeism due to the incidence that took place from 1933-1938.
Where there were more than 10,000 labor strikes. The poster played an integral part in creating a sense of unity and urgency. The poster shows two strong arms that are ready to take part in the available type of labor that will be beneficial to both the states and to themselves.
1.Howard Miller’s propaganda art: ‘Together we can do it, keep ‘em firing!
译文：Weimer Pursell 宣传艺术：战争艺术
当你独自骑行时，你和希特勒一起骑行标题为“我们可以一起做”的宣传海报。 Keep ‘em fire!’ 由 J. Howard Miller 于 1942 年在二战期间创建。 海报旨在鼓励管理层和劳工之间的团结。 此外，海报旨在提高工人的士气。 并减少因 1933 年至 1938 年发生的缺勤率。那里有超过 10,000 次罢工。 海报在营造团结和紧迫感方面发挥了不可或缺的作用。 海报展示了两个强大的手臂，它们准备参与对国家和他们自己都有益的可用类型的劳动。
Methodology War Art
The propaganda artists have contributed significantly to the freedom of expression. And hence have contributed to the advancement of creative skills. The history interpretation has been facilitated by the combat art work. Therefore, making it easier for future generations to understand the events that took place during World War I and II.
Not only did the artist express the horror battle on war, but they also represented some glimpse of their lives and creativity. And that is why some arts are being studied up to today because of their uniqueness. After World War I, art was forever changed; for instance, the visual arts, music. And films were created for an epoch. The war changed the nature of masculinity, and that is when Western art changed.
The posters used in the two World Wars mainly used the atrocity themes that considered the enemy as evil. And inhuman and could not be trusted to practice humanity as he was brutal to anyone who was not his ally. For instance, Hitler once said that ‘one is either a German or a Christian… .
You cannot be both’ from this quote. Hitler is perceived as inhuman and brutal and does not give a chance to anyone who is not at his side. The propaganda art was quite influential during these times as it facilitated the unity of countries to fight against their enemies.
WORK CITED War Art
Gray, Ciera. “Nine Types Of Propaganda.” Prezi.Com, 2012, https://prezi.com/tlu3upmyvir4/nine-types-of-propaganda/.
“How Was Propaganda Used In World War One?”. BBC Bitesize, https://www.bbc.co.uk/bitesize/topics/zqhyb9q/articles/zhw3jhv.
“Propaganda Analysis”. Jordioechsler, https://jordioechsler.wordpress.com/2014/03/11/propaganda-analysis/.
““When You Ride ALONE You Ride With Hitler!” U.S. Government Propaganda Poster, 1943. | Energy History”. Energyhistory.Yale.Edu, https://energyhistory.yale.edu/library-item/when-you-ride-alone-you-ride-hitler-us-government-propaganda-poster-1943.
“World War II Propaganda | American Experience | PBS.” Pbs.Org, https://www.pbs.org/wgbh/americanexperience/features/goebbels-propaganda/.