Gender Discrimination







Gender Discrimination

Gender Discrimination代写 Causes and Challenges of Gender Discrimination:Discrimination in Human Resource Policies and Practices


Generally, according to Mor Barak (2015, p. 83), diversity in the workplace means the company employs people from various social backgrounds, gender, ages, sex, religion, ethnicity, race, sexual orientation, language, education, among other distinct differences. Diversity management in the other hand is how the organization strives to achieve a balanced workforce, which is all-inclusive regardless of people’s backgrounds.

The case for women’s rights is enshrined in the Gender Equality Act of 2006 that seeks to protect women against any form of discrimination. Article 8(2) in the Federal Constitution makes it illegal to discriminate people based on gender (Kumar, 2016). Other laws that address gender equality in Malaysia include Employment Act 1955 (Act 265) and the Industrial Relations Act 1967 (Act 177). Diversity in employment is slowly taking shape in most organizations as managers acknowledge the need to have an all-inclusive workforce.

Summary  Gender Discrimination代写

The focus of this paper is to explore the nature of gender inequality in the context of diversity management within human resource practices, as well as the leading causes of workplace gender biases. The paper will inquire about institutionalized discrimination against women through human resource policies that determine criteria for selection, performance appraisal, and promotions. It will also provide an analysis of personal prejudice against women by the decisions made in the management practices and policies, which amounts to gender discrimination.

The reason for choosing this topic is because discriminative policies in HR practices in modern organizations as observed on BBC. The model below in figure 1 shows the relationships between policies, decisions, and practices as they pertain to HR.

The discrimination against one gender is a matter of concern in the contemporary employment realm and has affected the reputation and performance of organizations, as indicated in the article. BBC has been accused of discrimination against women and which has taken a toll on its reputation worldwide. Some of its well-known broadcasters were forced to quit the corporation as it took corrective measures and salvage the situation. As such, the promotion of an all-inclusive working environment should be a strategic goal of all organizations.

Gender Discrimination代写
Gender Discrimination代写

Figure 1: Model of gender discrimination

Causes and Challenges of Gender Discrimination  Gender Discrimination代写

Discrimination in Human Resource Policies and Practices

HR is a management function that is tasked with managing employees to ensure they align with the organizational goals (Wright, McMahan, and McWilliams, 1994, p. 320). The leading roles of HR include selection, performance management, work succession, and employee training. The HR system range from a well-structured department to a haphazard set of subjective rules and procedures by managers and supervisors. The HR system is critical because it determines the opportunities employees will have in the organization as well as how they feel valued in the organization.

Therefore, HR roles are categorized into policies, decisions, and enactment of these policies and decisions. Policies outline the employment criteria, appraisal, relations, and planning. Decision-making, on the other hand, occurs through the application of policies on situations and individuals. The use of policies by HR results in the enactment that is the interaction between employees and decision-makers. On one end, HR policies are the reflection of organizational discrimination, and other is the decision and enactment, which are reflections of personal bias by decision-makers.

Human Resource Policy  Gender Discrimination代写

The HR policies are institutional discrimination if they are biased against a particular group individual in an organization regardless of their experience, skills, competence, and performance. Gender bias against women occurs from recruitment and selection to roles, training, remuneration, appraisals, career advancement, and termination. For instance, qualified women in a specific field are low, or qualification for a particular job is lacking, and experience credentials are an essential requirement in recruitment. It may result in systematic discrimination, if not intentionally. Thus, discrimination occurs through the selection policy adopted by the organization.

Performance appraisal also depicts discrimination against women through a reward system, access to opportunities, and punishment. These biases are formalized into a policy if the rationale used favors men more than women. For instance, the criteria for “face time” that looks to reward workers at the time they spend in the office is discriminative. The fundamental roles of women as caregivers do not allow women flexibility at work compared to men and hence score lower on face time. It is a biased determination of performance.

Another area of concern is promotion and opportunities for career advancement.  Gender Discrimination代写

The presence of a formal ladder for dictating and constraining promotion opportunities gives women a disadvantage. Job ladders are classified in gender and hence resulting in gender job segregation as one joins the organization and becomes stronger up the ladder. It makes it difficult for women to cross from one ladder to the other because of perceived boundaries. As a result, women fail to get experience or jobs outside their ladders, reducing chances for advancement.

Overall, institutional inequality is present in HR policies that determine employee selection, performance, and career advancement. They are overbearing to career women and their prospects. However, they are only used to guide decisions. In a real sense, decisions are made by managers and supervisors tasked to do so using the policy, and hence, they have to assess the candidates and decide the applicability of the policy.

HR Decision-Making  Gender Discrimination代写

Organization decision-makers are tasked with HR decisions. It involves cognitive assessment competence, potential, and deservedness of potential employees. Like any other personal decision that is subjective, HR decision making is prevalent to biasness due to the individual preferences of the decision-maker. The HR decisions, especially at the time of hiring and roles assignment, are essential since they determine how much women will be paid and work opportunities such as promotion and training. Personal preferences in hiring by the decision-makers occur in all stages of HR decisions affect diversity in organizations.

Notably, it has been found that women face discrimination mainly at the time of selection. Studies have revealed that when a woman is interviewed for a male-dominated or perceived to be men job, female candidate risk having a negative assessment and thus are unlikely to be recommended for the job compared with a matched male candidate (Davison, and Burke, 2000, p. 240). For instance, a study involved sending ostensibly real job applications, and it was found that female applicants were less considered compared to male counterparts (McIntyre, Moberg, and Posner, 1980, p. 744). Women are disadvantaged when asking for a male-dominated job field.

Additionally, women on male-dominated tasks receive biased performance appraisal.  Gender Discrimination代写

Studies reveal that women in leadership positions have lower performance appraisal compared to male equals. The discrimination amplified in circumstance women acts stereotypically masculine (Eagly, Makhijani, and Klonsky, 1992, p. 3). Women are expected to attain higher than men in male domains. Boldry, Wood, and Kashy (2001, p. 695), found that in military cadets, women were tending to be given lower ratings despite equal qualifications with men. Also, women are poorly rated if the task they are involved in complex problem-solving. The reason for the poor rating is because of skepticism about women’s expertise and tend to disregard expert opinion from women but give men benefits of doubt.

Additionally, there are types of women likely to be discriminated against more than others in recruitment and selection or performance appraisal. Bold women were found to be unlikeable and less likely to be hired compared to agentic men in the same position and qualification (Heilman and Okimoto, 2007, p. 81; Rudman and Phelan, 2008, p. 74; Rudman, Moss-Racusin, Phelan, and Nauts, 2012, p. 174). Also, pregnant women have low chances of getting hired when they apply for a job. Wives and mothers get more preferences for a job or promotion than single and childless women and men.

Therefore, discrimination against agentic women, pregnant women, and mothers can be explained using the stereotypes against them.  Gender Discrimination代写

Agentic women are perceived as potential competitors and have low warmth. Pregnant women and mothers, on the other hand, are seen as less competent but have high warmth and are discriminated against because they lack deservedness. Together, bias against women subgroups has similar impacts.

Moreover, women are not given equal opportunities as men. As a result, they are underrepresented at leadership positions and top-level management (Eagly, Eagly, and Carli, 2007). Women are given simple tasks and hence receive less training than men. Female managers are not given high-level roles that precursors to promotion. However, men in the same positions are given key decision-making roles (De Pater, Van Vianen, and Bechtoldt, 2010, p. 448). The inequality is detrimental to the career opportunities for women since challenging tasks give chances to learn and gain critical skills.

Roth, Purvis, and Bobko (2012, p. 733) found that managers rate women for lower promotion prospects compared to men.  Gender Discrimination代写

If two candidates, a woman and a man want a promotion, managers are more likely to promote a man over a woman. The advantage that men have in promotions makes it easy for them to ascend the organizational ladder faster than women. Given the pyramid structure of corporate management, small gender discrimination in performance appraisal has far-reaching effects. Discrimination from decision-makers in the organization leads to career stagnation of women.

Finally, similar to the BBC case, women are generally unpaid compared to men. Research by the U.S. Government Accountability Office (2003) that took data from 1983 to 2000 on factors that affect pay found that men are paid 22 percent more than women. In any typical job, men are paid more than women, and the wage is usually larger in high paying occupations. The management decisions contribute to gender wage disparities. A study by Moss-Racusin et al. (2012, p. 16477) found that people suggest more starting pay for men than for women. The high wage gap between women and men is a result of decisions made by the management.

Personal Discrimination  Gender Discrimination代写

The HR enactment refers to when an employee is informed of the decision regarding employment status. Personal discrimination occurs when an employee is given a sexist message from decision-makers in HR. It constitutes gender violence and takes the forms of verbal and non-verbal that are insulting, sexist, and humiliating to a woman. Gender harassment is a prevalent form of discrimination. Two studies of Leskinen, Cortina, and Kabat (2011, p. 33) found that 52 percent of military women in the United States have had gender harassment, and 32 percent of attorneys in federal judicial system also had experienced gender harassment. Managers and supervisors perpetrate most of gender violence. It is common to have personal discrimination as a result of gender harassment.

Dual Process Model of Gender Inequality  Gender Discrimination代写

It provides how individuals can have thoughts in different ways and, as a result, have two different processes (Duckitt, 2001, p. 42). The two processes include implicit and explicit; that is conscious and unconscious processes. Explicit processes are mostly verbal and are influenced through persuasion or knowledge gain. Implicit processes like attitude, on the other hand, take time to be changed through a change in beliefs and values. Due to these divergent thinking and acting processes, a dual-process theory exists in social, personality, cognitive and psychology. In this regard, it has an impact on human relations particularly gender.

The social psychology aspect of dual-process model impacts on various domains including stereotyping, categorization, and judgment.  Gender Discrimination代写

Implicit processes have the most effect on people’s perception and thought processes. In the context of gender, people perceive information depending on the gender of the information source. The unconscious mental process allows the perceiver to get a substantial amount of information about the target person. Conscious processes occur when the perceiver is distracted by target information. People are grouped in stereotypes associated with them in the categorization based on stereotypes. Attitude is triggered spontaneously by a target object and can be biased through further processing information about the target object.

Gender discrimination is a form of stereotyping through dual processes in a thought system and attitude. As observed from the above discussion, gender inequality is created by HR policies, decisions, and enactments. They are designed and enacted by people in the organization and who are susceptible to dual information processing. Notably, gender inequality due to stereotypes is observed when there exist gendered ladders and gender-based job assignments in the organization.

Overcoming Gender Discrimination  Gender Discrimination代写

The model presented in figure 1 above shows that many causes and causes of gender inequality have complex interrelations. As such, there is no definite solution to reduce gender discrimination in organizations. The approach to the problem requires multiple solutions. According to Gelfand, Nishii, Raver, and Schneider (2007), if managements try to solve this problem using one approach and leave the rest, then it would be ineffective. Decision-makers need to incorporate gender consideration and implications in every decision they make.

Be Transparent  Gender Discrimination代写

Companies should reveal their gender statistics. A clear action plan should accompany it on the steps towards achieving all-inclusive workplace, pay gap and milestones. Managers should also make regular communications with workforces to give details on the company’s achievement towards gender equality.

Support Women into More Senior Roles

A company like KPMG has gender targets in every business line and function. It has defined milestones and deadlines for the achievement of workplace targets. Managers and decision-makers are responsible and accountable for achieving them.

Implement Gender Neutral Recruitment Processes  Gender Discrimination代写

KPMG job adverts are carefully worded and gender-neutral. The company avoids using words like “competitive” and “determined” which are put off for women. On the other hand, words like “collaborative” and “cooperative tend put off men. Interviews are standardized, resumes are made anonymous, and evaluation are done blindly.

Review Salaries and Standardized Pay

Companies need to conduct frequent reviews of salaries to eliminate pay gaps. Pay ranges should be set during recruitment but not how a worker makes a negotiation.

Provide Training on Unconscious Bias  Gender Discrimination代写

Employees need to be aware of the unconscious bias that causes gender discrimination at workplace. The aim should aim to make them understand the existence of bias and try to eliminate them.

Have Clear Policy on Discrimination

Most workers do not acknowledge the existence of gender discrimination and inappropriate behavior. A study by Unilever also found that 67 percent are under pressure to get over sexism behavior (Bolden-Barrett, 2017). They also established that 64 percent and 55 percent of women and men respectively said that most people do not confront people found misbehaving in sexist behavior towards women. As such, any company should have a policy the ensure workers access comments or reporting on such sexism treatment.

Provide Flexible Working and De-stigmatize Shared Parental Leave  

The company should shift its mindset from performance appraisal based on time spent in the office to delivery and achievement. The practice will not only impact on women but also men who have home responsibilities.

Promote a Culture of Meritocracy  Gender Discrimination代写

Organizations need to create a culture for sharing ideas at all levels, races, and gender. If there are few women at the management level, their voices will not be heard as they will overshadowed by men. However, in a situation where the representation of both genders is balanced, then women voice is heard and can contribute positively towards decision-making process.

Gender Discrimination代写
Gender Discrimination代写

For instance, KPMG is a perfect example of an organization that is cognizance of gender discrimination in the workplace. It has created an environment where people have shared attitudes and behavior that have reflected shared values, experiences and aspirations (KPMG, 2019). The company believes in workplace diversity through thought processes, social backgrounds, and experiences. Together they strengthen workers and management relationships and interdependence and hence spar quality in delivery of services. Above all, the company charges its CEO, managers, and partners with the roles of promoting diversity and inclusivity.

Gender inequality is institutionalized through the leadership of the organization.  Gender Discrimination代写

Leadership is a position of influencing others to achieve the set goals. Leadership is the communicating figure of what the organization stands for and priorities. They also impact on the organizational structure, processes, and practices. Leaders are the overall roles model to the organization tasked with setting up the culture, policies, and strategies of the organization. The inequality in leadership have women underrepresented, and thus gender discrimination against women is perpetuated at all levels of the organization.

Similarly, few women in leadership have persisted because of leadership gender that determines the level of gender discrimination, gender support policies, and workplace diversity. The presence of women at top management creates a positive environment for women empowerment. They act as symbols of organizational dedication to support gender diversity. It has been observed that industries that have fewer women on top positions have a high wage gap (Cohen and Huffman, 2007, p. 689). Female supervisors create a supportive environment for women compared to male supervisors. Therefore, when women are not well-represented in leadership, there are high chances of women experiencing discrimination.

The organizational structure also determines the level of gender inequality.

Formally, organizations are arranged in hierarchies and departments. Job ladders are typical institutional discrimination through gender segregation. Such segregation results in women to limited access to jobs that are not in their ladder and thus lowering upward mobility away from their ladder. In gender-segregated networks, women are less visible and lack contact with power and influence. The organizational structure should encourage women’s mobility in a career.

References  Gender Discrimination代写

Boldry, J., Wood, W., and Kashy, D.A., 2001. Gender stereotypes and the evaluation of men and women in military training. Journal of Social Issues, 57(4), pp.689-705.

Bolden-Barrett, V., 2017. Study: Gender stereotypes keep gender inequality alive in the workplace. Available from

Davison, H.K., and Burke, M.J., 2000. Sex discrimination in simulated employment contexts: A meta-analytic investigation. Journal of Vocational Behavior, 56(2), pp.225-248.

Duckitt, J., 2001. A dual-process cognitive-motivational theory of ideology and prejudice. In Advances in experimental social psychology (Vol. 33, pp. 41-113). Academic Press.

De Pater, I.E., Van Vianen, A.E. and Bechtoldt, M.N., 2010. Gender differences in job challenge: A matter of task allocation. Gender, Work & Organization, 17(4), pp.433-453.

Eagly, A.H., Makhijani, M.G., and Klonsky, B.G., 1992. Gender and the evaluation of leaders: A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 111(1), p.3.

Eagly, A.H., Eagly, L.L.C.A.H., and Carli, L.L., 2007. Through the labyrinth: The truth about how women become leaders. Harvard Business Press.

Gelfand, M.J., Nishii, L.H., Raver, J.L., and Schneider, B., 2007. Discrimination in Organizations: An Organizational-Level Systems Perspective (CAHRS Working Paper# 07-08).

Heilman, M.E., and Okimoto, T.G., 2007. Why are women penalized for success at male tasks? The implied communality deficit. Journal of applied psychology, 92(1), p.81.

Kumar, K., 2016. Minister now says the Gender Equality Act in the works. Malaymail. Available from


Gender Discrimination代写
Gender Discrimination代写

KPMG., 2019. Inclusion is about all of us: Inclusion and Diversity Report 2018/19. KPMG. Available from

Leskinen, E.A., Cortina, L.M., and Kabat, D.B., 2011. Gender harassment: Broadening our understanding of sex-based harassment at work. Law and human behavior, 35(1), pp.25-39.

McIntyre, S., Moberg, D.J., and Posner, B.Z., 1980. Preferential treatment in preselection decisions according to sex and race. Academy of Management Journal, 23(4), pp.738-749.

Mor Barak, M.E., 2015. Inclusion is the key to diversity management, but what is inclusion? Human Service Organizations: Management, Leadership & Governance, 39(2), pp.83-88.

Moss-Racusin, C.A., Dovidio, J.F., Brescoll, V.L., Graham, M.J., and Handelsman, J., 2012. Science faculty’s subtle gender biases favor male students. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 109(41), pp.16474-16479.

Rudman, L.A., and Phelan, J.E., 2008. Backlash effects for disconfirming gender stereotypes in organizations. Research in organizational behavior, 28, pp.61-79.

Thomas-Hunt, M.C., and Phillips, K.W., 2004. When what you know is not enough: Expertise and gender dynamics in task groups. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(12), pp.1585-1598.

U.S. Government Accountability Office., 2003. Women’s Earnings: Work Patterns Partially Explain Difference Between Men’s and Women’s Earnings (GAO-04-35). Available at:

Wright, P.M., McMahan, G.C., and McWilliams, A., 1994. Human resources and sustained competitive advantage: a resource-based perspective. International journal of human resource management, 5(2), pp.301-326.


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