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Policy Implementation

Policy Implementation代写 Human resource management has become an important element in management as more and more firms operate in the international market.


Human resource management has become an important element in management as more and more firms operate in the international market.  Policy Implementation代写

The world has become more globalized and more competitive and hence firms go global to for diverse markets and to remain competitive. Human resource management has become a major element of gaining competitive advantage, especially in the international markets. HRM is defined as management activities in the bid to utilize human resources.HRM activities include staffing, performance management, compensation, training and development, and human resource planning (Banfield, Kay, and Royles, 2018, p. 3). According to Ozbilgin et al., (2014), HRM is a function of compensating, appraising, training and hiring employees in an organization beside complying with health and safety measures, labor and employment laws.

On the other hand, international human resource management is the activities that focus on managing international employees. Different countries have different management and leadership styles, policies, and practices besides having differing structures and control systems. (“The Executive Connection,” 2018)For instance, the U.S. and U.K. apply to pay for performance scheme which might not be applicable in another country. Similarly, compared to Americans, Japanese spend more other money on recreational and social activities. At the international market, the HRM is concerned with the key issues such as globalization, environmental influences and cultural differences in HRM policy implementation differences in the domestic and international human resource management.

In this regard, this paper focus on understanding the application of domestic policies on the offshore environment.

To achieve this, it will take three policy areas including performance management, hiring and remunerations and how they are implemented in an off-shore situation. Also, the paper will be structured based on the three policies and the discussion in the context of globalization, environmental influences, and cultural changes. It will then end with a conclusion by restating the thesis statement and statin the position of the paper in regard to policy implementation.

Performance Management Policy  Policy Implementation代写

Performance management involves setting clear and measurable goals for human resource (“UC Berkeley,” n.d). As such, it contains the aspect of a continuous process of communication between employees and their supervisors in the bid to accomplish the strategic objectives of the organization. The main role of performance management is to design and implement performance appraisals for human resource.

As such, effective performance management plan, monitor and reward successful workers and manager so as the organization. And its employees have a clear understanding of their own personal role within the organization and the business strategy as a whole. Good performance management ensures alignment between human resource goals with organizational goals so that the performance of both the human resource and organization are enhanced through effective implementation of HRM practices.

To implement domestic HRM performance management in the international markets, require a change of strategies because of environmental and cultural differences.  Policy Implementation代写

Locally, the company may be well aligned with reward and competency needs of its employees. However, in another country, the reward system may change depending on the labor and employment laws. Similarly, competencies changes depending on the level of skilled labor in the country (“Travel.State. Gov,”). For instance, a company operating in Australian and need to establish a subsidiary in the United States will be obliged to adhere to reward system set by the government. That is, there is no negotiation over remuneration (“Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: The United States,” n.d).

Policy Implementation代写
Policy Implementation代写

It is a difference in Australia where base pay and bonus are negotiated between the organization and individuals is dependent on other variables like business performance. (“Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: Australia,” n.d) Notably, labor in the U.S. can be expensive as compared to Australia and hence different reward-based performance appraisal structures will be used. Also, the reward system may be affected by cultural differences across the two countries. In U.S. workers expect to have partial payment of social security while in Australian it is not a requirement.

Similarly, competency also affects performance management.  Policy Implementation代写

Different countries have varied competency levels in term of skill levels, values, beliefs and interests. Which affect customer service, interpersonal skills, technological competency, and leadership. These differences affect how HRM policy in performance management is implemented. For instance, a parent company in Australia and wish to establish in South Sudan may be faced with the challenge of availability of skilled labor.

In South Sudan, there are few skilled labours and hence applying the same competency-based HRM may not be possible. At some point, the company may be forced to hire expatriates or train employees which might be expensive. The same case applies in the presence of large skilled labor like China which tends to be cheap compared to Australia. For a company to align its human resource goals with its goals, the competencies become standards during recruitments and assessing training needs.

Hiring Policy  Policy Implementation代写

Hiring is an essential function in human resource management. Sourcing for qualified personnel contributes to the overall success of the company. Each employee is hired to make a significant contribution to the company. Hiring policy is the philosophy, procedures, and standards that must be fulfilled by the candidate for a certain position. Hiring means sourcing for a most appropriate person to fill the position and who will contribute and share the goals of the company.

As such, it includes personnel requisition, intake meeting, job posting, internal applicants, interview process, reference checks, and a job offer. (Engel and Curran, 2016, p. 174) The conventional standards in hiring include equal employment opportunities, objecting hiring, candidate privacy, and experiences. In the international human resource, hiring is affected by labor and employment laws and different cultures which might come into conflict with the company’s hiring policy. Nevertheless, hiring policies are guided by laws in a country, business purpose, costs, employment rights, and working age.

Every country and companies follow different hiring policies depending on the cultures.  Policy Implementation代写

A country or a company may be ethnocentric, polycentric or geo-centric hiring policies. As such, the implementation of hiring policy in an off-shore country require dynamic shifts in philosophy, standards, and procedures. When a company from Australia decide to go global, it needs a local establishment which is better fulfilled by hiring local managers and other staff. The recruitment decision to hire locally is guided by the need for the company to adjust to the local cultures. Behaviors and other scenarios that might impact on the subsidiary company.

While in other instances, a company may tend to use the ethnocentric approach in hiring where it intends to retain culture in the host country. In collectivist cultures, in-group recruitment is prevalent due to social pressure to hire friends in need (Cherry, 2018). Collectivism is mostly an Eastern culture as opposed to Western culture that is individualistic. Unlike collectivism which is guided by trustworthiness and compatibility, individualism is competency based (Kendra, 2018).

Therefore, collectivism culture does not give room to hire foreign employees but locals. In ethnocentric hiring, the company comes with expatriates from its country of operation to perpetuate its policies and practices in the host country. At such scenarios, the employee may have a negative attitude towards the company culture where they find it narrow to grow. As a convention, most companies implement hiring policies that are congruent with the host country culture, behaviors and beliefs.

Additionally, implementation of hiring policies in foreign countries are also affected by labor and employment regulations.  Policy Implementation代写

In China, hiring policies are vested on the ideological framework set by the country’s powerful institutions which govern how companies behave. In Europe, labor laws and trade unions have the power to regulate how employees are handled and hence impact on foreign company’s decision on hiring. In essence, the legal frameworks and systems regulating industrial relations have constrained how foreign companies can apply market-driven HRM and more hiring policies.

In some countries in Africa, it is a policy to source local labor for common task except for executive management. However, in the United States, companies are more autonomous to make policy decisions pertaining to communication with the employees and hence uncontrolled hiring environment. Therefore, global companies can transfer their hiring policies and practices and align them with the host country institutional, legal, and cultural human resource practices.

Compensation Policy  Policy Implementation代写

Compensation is the reward to the employee for the services rendered. The compensation policy used depends on the employee’s working hours which can be swing shifts or graveyard shifts to the high performing employees who contribute immensely to the company’s goals. Employers take a key interest in the type of compensation policy adopted to ensure that employees are rewarded equitably and competitively relative to other companies in the industry. As such, compensation ranges from basic pay to incentives, merit increases, and bonus.

However, implementation of compensation policy in a foreign country is affected by aspects of taxation, cost of living, inflation and more.  Policy Implementation代写

Every country has its own tax structure, cost of living, retirement policy and health insurance as well as other economic factors like inflation. Therefore, a human resource manager has the roles of determining the compensation in light of the above factors. When determining the compensation plan, a company with a subsidiary has the option to use either the home-country-based approach or the host-country-based approach. In the home-country-based approach, the intention is to equalize the employee to a standard of living enjoyed in the home country for the case of expatriates.

Policy Implementation代写
Policy Implementation代写

On the other hand, the host-country-based approach compensations are based on the local national rates. Nevertheless, these compensations are affected by practices and regulations in the host country. For instance, in a country like the U.S., the employer is expected to partially cover the social security of the employee. And fund the pension scheme beside paying for minimum wage and a living wage. (“Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: The United States,” n.d)

This is not the case in Australia where the parent company will not be obliged to pay for employee’s social security. (“Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development: The United States,” n.d) Also, taxation affects the level of compensation since different countries apply different tax system. In the U.S. it has both federal, state, and local governments with taxes imposed at each of them while in China the tax is paid at the national level. The use of one compensation plan in a host country may not be transferable in another country.

Policy implementation in off-shore countries is dependent on the ally of factors ranging from government regulations to social-cultural factors.

A company operating subsidiaries in foreign countries have to adhere to the host country environment for successful human resource management. Performance management is affected by differences in appraisal system and competency levels. Hiring policy is mainly affected by cultural and legal framework differences. While compensation policy is affected by taxation, regulations, living cost and more. Therefore, divergence in policy implementation needs a dynamic and robust human resource management to the focus of HR to the company goals.

References  Policy Implementation代写

Banfield, P., Kay, R. and Royles, D., 2018. Introduction to human resource management. Oxford University Press.

Cherry, K. 2018. Understanding collectivist cultures: How culture can influence behavior. Available from https://www.verywellmind.com/what-are-collectivistic-cultures-2794962

Engel, M. and Curran, F.C., 2016. Toward understanding principals’ hiring practices. Journal of Educational Administration, 54(2), pp.173-190.

Kendra, C. 2018. Individualistic cultures and behaviors. Available from https://www.verywellmind.com/what-are-individualistic-cultures-2795273

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. n.d. Human resource management country profile: United States. Available from https://www.oecd.org/gov/pem/OECD%20HRM%20Profile%20-%20United%20States.pdf

Özbilgin, M.F., Groutsis, D., and Harvey, W.S. eds., 2014. International human resource management. Cambridge University Press.

Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development. n.d. Human resource management country profile: Australia. Available from https://www.oecd.org/gov/pem/OECD%20HRM%20Profile%20-%20Australia.pdf

The Executive Connection. (2018). Different leadership styles from around the world. Available from https://tec.com.au/resource/different-leadership-styles-from-around-the-world/

UC Berkeley. n.d. Performance management: Concepts and definition. Available from https://hr.berkeley.edu/hr-network/central-guide-managing-hr/managing-hr/managing-successfully/performance-management/concepts


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