Commentary代写 Introduction and Context：Roman culture and artistic traditions including architecture were primarily influenced by Etruscans.
Introduction and Context Commentary代写
Roman culture and artistic traditions including architecture were primarily influenced by Etruscans¹ (Boëthius, Ling, & Rasmussen, 1978). Archeologists have used the “world of the dead”² to understand some architectural aspects of the “world of the living.” The image is a representation of funeral urn hut of The Villanovan culture (c. 900–700 BC) (Bartoloni, 2014). In the Etruscans period, it was used to preserve the remains of the cremation of the dead, especially prominent people.
The ash was ritually and symbolically used to as a “house” for the departed soul and as a way of creating the memories of her as a person and her position within the social group to which she belonged (Camporeale, 2009). They urn hut were oval-shaped with protrusion of wooden beams in two rows and sloping roof-sides. The beams cut across the roof at a central ridge to form a V in the air. The urn is decorated with at the ceiling with a dense carved geometric design such as swastikas, meanders, and angular motifs.
The urn hut was part of the Etruscan culture that existed around 700 BC and 200 BC. Commentary代写
They were mainly excavated from tombs³ of the Etruscan elite, and it is a depiction that they lived in reasonably spacious comfort. Therefore, the architecture of the Etruscan civilization presented by the hut urn is used to supplements the knowledge of early Roman domestic building and urban development.
¹ Etruscan is a civilization that flourished in central Italy between 8th and 3rd century BCE. Thus, Etruscan civilization is the modern name of ancient Italy civilization.
² Etruscan people believed in life after death. It is well depicted how how they preserved deseased and built tombs.
³ Tombs are traditional burial sites. Today they rich source of information about Etruscan life and culture.
Meaning and Significance Commentary代写
The urn huts from tombs provide substantial ideas about Etruscan civilization and hence used to restructure the Roman domestic buildings. Tombs monuments were built using stone chambers compared to local architecture that was made from soft materials like wood and mud that weathered overtime. The shapes of monuments varied and could be round or square. The urns were spacious with shelves allowed accommodation of several cremated family members. The structure of the Roman domestic building is well explained using the urn huts.
The houses had a plastered cover made with wooden pole that provided extra support and held up the roof. The image has a sturdy base depicting that the houses sometimes had stones as a foundation and lower level. The decorations at the top of the urn show how the roofs of large public houses were decorated using palmettes, lotus motifs, and figurines. The saddle tiles at the apex corn-shaped roof were used to protect the whole structure. They used terracotta plaques to protect the beams at the edges. The roofs tile of the image were replacements of thatch.
Therefore, Etruscans culture influenced Roman domestic architecture, which subsequently influenced urban development. Commentary代写
Etruscan towns and cities were strategically built to take advantage of social amenities such as water and security. The Protovillanovans⁴ were organized into villages with several huts for a population of about ten to a hundred people (Cornell, 1995). They also considered a position that would give them a defensive advantage. Though the access of sea was essential most huts were built far inland to avoid attacks from pirates. The city was walled not crucial in urban planning relative to the choice of the site.
The 7th-century houses were oval-shaped due to steep terrains in Italy and hence were not according to the grid. The rectangle houses came later in 7th century and were built with stone foundations, wooden framing, and unbaked mud bricks. This city planning system became popular in Roman urban development. The Roman streets of Pompeii, Ostia, Silchester, and Empuries were largely influenced by Etruscan architecture⁵. Roman built their cities relative to the surrounding just like the Etruscans.
The town’s main streets were made in such ways for public business and pageantry. Other roads were designed to allow for residential interactions. The houses with interior courtyards were also carried on in the later Roman dwellings with atrium that is more formal central court. Etruscan is credited for its ancient tradition of city planning and houses where street intersected to form a right angle that resembles the north-south east-west grid. Commentary代写
Overall, the study of Etruscan’s culture help in the understanding of its connection and influence of Roman culture and architecture as it was, and it is to date.
Roman city planning architecture has also impacted on world’s iconic structures. The Arc de Triomphe⁶ and the Place Vendôme⁷ were derived from Roman formulas. The Federal Hall⁸ in New York City features Doric columns were also decorations from Roman culture. These modern monuments preserve and perpetuate the Etruscan civilization and hence Roman that would have otherwise be forgotten.
⁴ Proto-Villanovan is a Bronze age culture from Italy and appeared in 12th century BC
⁵ Just like today’s Italy architecture, Etruscan used stones and wood to build houses.
⁶ Is among the famous mouments in Paris. It is at the west side of the Champs-Élysées. The monument is an honor to heros of war in French Revolution and Napoleonic Wars.
⁷ Is a square in the 1st arrondissement of Paris, France at the north of the Tuileries Gardens and east of the Église de la Madeleine.
⁸ It is the name for the historic buildings at 26 Wall Street in the Financial Districtof Manhanttan, New York City.
Boëthius, A., Ling, R., & Rasmussen, T. (1978). Etruscan and early Roman architecture. Yale University Press.
Bartoloni, G. (2014). The Villanovan culture: At the beginning of Etruscan history. in The Etruscan World (pp. 127-146). Routledge.
Camporeale, G. (2009). the Deified Deceased in Etruscan Culture. S. Bell and h. Nagy, eds, 220-250.
Cornell, T.J. (1995). The Beginnings of Rome: Italy and Rome from the Bronze Age to the Punic Wars (c. 1000-264 BC), London, ch. 3.