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Introduction to Energy

USVI Report

USVI Report代写 The research on the USVI power grid was conducted by Eric Lantz, Dan Olis and Adam Warren in partnership with the U.S Virgin Islands···

 

Summary

The research on the USVI power grid was conducted by Eric Lantz, Dan Olis and Adam Warren in partnership with the U.S Virgin Islands, U.S Department of Energy, and the U.S Department of the Interior. The Department of Energy funded the project. The partnership was formed as the initiative of Department of Energy intended for Energy Development in Island Nations. The research aimed at analyzing the USVI power consumption and explore alternative energy sources to fossil fuel. The results were used for developing the implementation plan that intended to achieve reduction fossil use by 60% without altering the energy needs and demand of the nations by 2025 (60*25).

Therefore, the report is a strategy envisioned by the USVI, DOE, and DOI which aimed at revolutionizing the electricity sectors to make it efficient and sustainable. The target of the plan was to turn the USVI less dependent on oil energy which is expensive, unsustainable and is high in emissions. The research found that, for USVI to attain energy efficiency by reducing fossil usage by 60%, the islands have to create a new energy mix by building and improving energy efficiency and renewable energy. The results were used as the framework for energy plan decisions.

Comparison of Three Future Scenarios  USVI Report代写

The USVI energy mix for future energy efficiency required balance between three future scenarios including high renewable scenario, the base case, and high-efficiency scenario. These scenarios are based on the efficiency and renewable energy opportunities available for exploration. Also, their overall impact on oil consumption is expected to reduce by 60% by 2025 (Lantz, Olis, and Warren, p. 53).

Nonetheless, the three scenarios differ in various critical variables. Renewable energy and creation of energy efficiency are the fundamental aspects of the achievement of reduced oil consumption in future. The research found that efficiency improvement in the three scenarios is mostly dependent on water efficiency and power production. The figure 1 below illustrates the futuristic combination of the three scenarios for the attainment of sustainable energy in USVI.

USVI Report代写
USVI Report代写

Figure 1: Pie chart of fuel consumption, renewable energy generation and energy efficiency expected by 2020 in USVI

The research found that the initial cost between scenarios varies due to the different types of technology needs. 

The high renewable scenario was found to be the most expensive at $635 million (Lantz, Olis, and Warren, p. 51). It also has a high reliance on utility-scale renewable energy generation technology. The base case is second and likely to cost about $565 million (Lantz, Olis, and Warren, p. 30). The last one is the high-efficiency case that was found to likely cost about $495 million. The high cost of renewable energy is a result of its reliance on utility-scale renewable energy generation technology. Nonetheless, its dependence on utility-scale generation simplify its implementation and reduce transaction costs compared to high-efficiency scenario. The ease of implementation and transaction costs are significant in the case of sizeable end-user efficiency is involved.

USVI Report代写
USVI Report代写

The scenarios also have various penetration levels of variable output renewables. They are essential consideration in grid operations of a small island power system. The research found that the variable generation amounts to 10% to 20% of the WAPA energy mix (Lantz, Olis, and Warren, p. 54). Nevertheless, these variable output generations are manageable in both large and small power systems. However, there is need to have additional research to evaluate the impact or costs associated with various levels of variable output renewables in the energy mix.

How to Include Greater Storage Components in the Energy Mix  USVI Report代写

The energy grid operates based on a balance between power usage and supply. The balance in power fluctuation in supply and demand. The balance can be created through storage of electricity at the time of high production and low demand and then releasing it during high demand and low production. Storage provides the most economical, reliable and sustainable method.

The improvement in energy storage mechanisms is critical. It helps in creating sustainability in renewable energy. One of the underdeveloped technologies is the use of compressed air system in underground convers which can later be used when the energy demand is high. Also, USVI should embrace the use of improved battery technologies for energy storage which can be used to store electricity at the time of high production and low demand and release it at the time of low production and high demand. Besides, power can be used to pump water to the reservoir at the time of the high output and low demand and release it at the time of high demand. The various storage methods ensure renewable energy sustainability and power balance.

Criticism of the Report  USVI Report代写

The report set a low target in fossil fuel consumption. The 60% reduction in oil consumption spread in 15 years is not ambitious enough both to a state that heavily relies on fossils for power generation and in the bid to reduce greenhouse emissions. Instead, the strategic plan would have targeted to achieve less than 40% consumption rate, whereby renewable energy takes a more significant proportion.

Work Cited  USVI Report代写

Lantz, Eric, Dan Olis, and Adam Warren. US Virgin Islands energy road map: Analysis. No. NREL/TP-6A20-52360. National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States), 2011.

 

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