Human Resource Analytical Essay

Analyze staff turnover, its cost and effects on the business and develop strategies to improve retention?


There is a positive connection between job retention and organizational performance. According to Campion (1991, 23), there is an inescapable turnover which is characteristically seen as vital to a company. The belief that turnover drops the company performance is backed by a number of studies. Turnover may hinder company performance when a staff who aimed to depart gets less efficient and reliable. The turnover of a company is connected to the inner performance of a company. It is also believed that turnover may improve performance. One of the benefits that are acquired from turnover is that it excludes the less efficient workers. Additionally according to Staw et al (1986, 447) he proposes that the turnover may improve performance if a good number of the turnover was by staff with more or too little tenure.

According to Reggio (2003, 68), staff turnover is the shift of staff from a company. It is negative factor that may bring about the loss of staff retention method in the company. Moving out of a job shows major work issues as opposed to chances for development into better employment opportunities. The turnover of staff does away with team; it increases costs, limits productivity and brings about knowledge loss, it is hence vital for the top leadership to know the significance of staff job satisfaction.

A good number of American companies incur $11 billion yearly due to voluntary and involuntary turnover. This cost has been brought about by termination, promotion, recruitment, selection and employing. Turnover similarly brings about ethereal costs like a drop in motivation and disruption of social and communication trends.

Staff Turnover

The reason why turnover varies from other sources outside the company like economy and its influence on turnover like employment level, inflation to the company aspects like type of industry, occupational type, company size, selection procedure, work setting, benefits and development. Other turnover aspects are connected the individual work aspects like job fulfillment, promotion and the setting of the work. The other perspective is the nonworking aspects like family aspects.

The most significant demographic aspects are age, tenure and education. Studies show that there is gradual negative connection between age and turnover. Younger staffs have a greater chance of leaving, limited family responsibility and no limited opportunities in the company. Just as in age, the extent of service adds to turnover choice. It has been believed that the lesser the length of service the more the turnover. According to Mangione (1973, 74), a multivariate study acquired that the length of service is the biggest predictors of turnover. But there lacks a connection between turnover and education.

This paper is concerned about the staff level of turnover. It is hence in this focus that there is positive connection between intrinsic motivation, company commitment and job success. Additionally, the company commitment is connected with the performance. Lastly, the company commitment is well connected to age, job experience and length of service. The objective of turnover has shown a dependable indicator of the right turnover and is rigidly affected by job satisfaction. A good number of staff chooses to leave their company when their needs are not well met in their place of employment. On the other hand, when staffs are not fully satisfied with their work place, their aim to stay in their company reduced. Basically, the negative impacts in the model of limited job satisfaction were turnover cognitive.

Reggio (2003, 24) adds that the two forms of low levels of job satisfaction and company commitment are connected to high rate of turnover. Adding to this, prior studies connected to the relationship that is there in job satisfaction and turnover done in the last five decades and acquired that there is a negative connection. Job satisfaction is a rigid predictor of the intentions of turnover. Studies have shown that in Pakistan reveal a major connection in the retention of employment and satisfaction that is acquired from it.

Effect of Turnover

The implication of turnover can be thought of as organizational or personal section with benefits and negatives. Negative implications to companies may be composed of cost of tangible recruitment an selection, training and advancement, limited productivity and intangible cost like moral influence, stimulation of additional turnover, effect of work load and distraction of job performance (Meyer, et al, 2001, 302). Other negative implications are strategic chances of costs, disruption of social and communication trends.

On the positive side, there is dislocation of under par performance, advancement, dynamisms, adaptability, conflict resolution and decline in withdrawal tendencies. Negative impact to a person is composed of high expectation that may lead to materialized, loss of seniority and disruption of social aspect. Positive implications are composed of high salary, job challenge, leaving a stressful setting. On the whole, turnover is quite expensive at the top level. Studies show that the approximated cost of substituting an executive is $ 64,000 and the price of unscheduled absence of mean to be as great as $ 757 for every staff. With regard to the knowledge of causes and effects of turnover, a number of studies have desired a number of solutions answers to the issues of turnover using a number of strategies for a staff’s retention.


Employee Retention

Retention could be advanced through a number of instances, like improved recruitment, choosing the right person for the job, ongoing assessment of job aspects and job description, leadership and team creation among others. However, initial studies showed that a better connection between job satisfaction and performance, staff naturally desires to be satisfied from their place of employment. This does not just make us stay away from place of employment; it similarly brings about pleasantness and satisfaction. This is significant part. According to McConnell (2003, 129), job performance is an objective that can be seen and estimated. Age additionally is a variable aspect that affects job performance. All of these aspects have a good connection on staff job performance. Pakistan is a good example of a country that has a good connection between job performances with job satisfaction.


Turnover may affect job performance the moment a staff that was destined to quit gets to be inefficient. There is an introverted viable benefit of turnover was abolishment of below par staff. Moreover, turnover can be improved if a good section of the turnover was by staff with extended or shortened tenure.

Turnover intentions have shown that a dependable indicator of real turnover and were highly affected by satisfaction in their place of work. However, staffs have it that their choice to leave a company is based on lack of satisfaction. While as for those that kept in the job, their desire to be part of it began to decline as time goes by.




Retention Strategies

Understanding Turnover

The differentiating evadable and un-evadable turnover may be useful to companies so as to comprehend voluntary turnover completely. Evadable basis involves staff leaving to acquire better wages or work settings in other places, issues dealing with management or going after improved employment chances. Unavoidable basis are those that are above the company’s control like a staff having to shift due to relocation of a loved one or going to meet certain goals.

If a company can note that most of its voluntary turnover is unavoidable it may get benefits from efforts that are focused on controlling turnover after the effort as opposed to using resources on applying preventable steps. On the other hand, if a great portion of the turnover is avoidable, then this allocates the ability for targeted intervention (Boles, 1995, 28). This is though if the top leadership acquires the turnover issue to be more unavoidable, they may not be able to know the turnover as a sign of issues in the company. Another thing is getting to turnover in a company is to know if the retention complexities are due to inner and external matters.

Measuring Turnover

To acquire benefit accurately, there has to be inner causes of the turnover which are vital in knowing the quantity and quality of details. To know the reasons for the turnover, quality details on why staffs have left is important. It is necessary for employers to know the rate of labour turnover and the impact on the company’s effectiveness. With regard to the size of the company, knowledge has to be there of the levels of turnover in the occupations, setting and type of staff that may be useful in enlightening a good retention strategy. In getting to know the form of turnover issue a company is able to make a choice on the best retention move.


Wastage rates

Most companies apply the crude waste for estimating turnover. This computes the size of leavers in a time set as a percentage of the mean size of the staff at the same time.

There is the crude wastage rate which is a measure that shows there is a limited risk in varied parts of a company issuing irregular details. This though has its negative side due to the leavers involved in it. One estimate of turnover does not contrast the issues where individuals leave due to lack of satisfaction and cases where people leave due to poor health. Additionally, when computing replacement numbers it may be wrong to regard them on crude wastage that is composed of staff that does not require replacing. The rate of crude wastage has no comparison in the functionality and dysfunctional turnover.

Exit Interviews and Surveys

Companies acquire qualitative details regarding turnover exit interviews and surveys. It is though relevant to take consideration the reasons why individuals give for leaving jobs, where most of them are not correct or partly correct. The application of exit interviews is common while at the same time not appreciated, more so when undertaken by an individual that may be later told to write a reference for leaving job (Boles et al, 1995, 23). The use of exit interviews are best done in a limited time period after the staff issues a departure notice. The interviewer ought to be somebody who did not have any authority or position of leadership over the staff or will have leadership power over the staff. There ought to be confidentiality in the discussion.

Another method would be to undertake surveys that involve questions on their desire to leave as well as the use of questionnaires directed to former leadership on confidentiality basis six to seven months after leaving.


Costing Turnover

Implication of the turnover on a company may not be completely be comprehended if there lacks no effort to quantify the costs. The more complicated method to costing turnover would be to issue correct approximate information about the costs. These tendencies consider the costs related to the lost productivity and the impact of motivation in the staff remaining.

Recruitment Tendencies

In extreme turnover companies in most cases, a good number of the staff turnover involves individuals that are dismissed in the first months. The costs of recruiting and turnover for every person get bigger when a new person leaves after short time stint. In the event there are new employees after a limited time period, below par recruitment and choices on the employer and staff are normally the reason, as well as below par model programs used (Boles, et al, 1995, 20). If desires are improved in the recruitment process this may bring about people that are in the jobs that they are comfortable and competent. Companies in most cases undertake this so that they fill the holes with numbers that are needed as well as qualified as fast as possible. This though can impact negatively in a long time and may be too expensive avoidable turnover and to the advancement of a below par retention in local markets. The employers offer the staffs a realistic job features at the recruitment phase and consider not to increase expectations. It additionally may be vital to involve applicants to engage in work shift prior to getting them committed.


This paper has been able to analyze the staff turnover in number instances like Pakistan and USA; this has been made more effective and reliable by connecting it to costs that may be accrued with the varied choices the top leadership in a company makes. This tends to bring about varied effects that affect the company in varied ways. As a result, the company has been able to look into a number of retention strategies that would help a company to manage its staff turnover; like having a good recruitment strategy, analysis of the costing turnover and measuring the turnover.




















Boles, J.S., Lawrence E. R., & Johnson, J.T. 1995. Reducing Employee Turnover through the   Use of Pre-Employment Application Demographics. Hospitality Research Journal, 19(2),             pp.19-30.

Campion MA. 1988. Interdisciplinary Approaches to job Design: A Constructive Replication    with Extensions. Journal of Applied Psychology, 73, pp.467-481.

Mangione, T.W. 1973. Turnover-Some Psychological and Demographic Correlates, the 1969-       1970 Survey of Working Conditions. University of Michigan, Survey Research Center.

McConnell, C. R. 2003. The Manger’s Approach for Employee Performance Problems. Health           Care Manager, 22(1), pp. 63–69.

Meyer, John P. and Lynn Herschovitch 2001. Commitment in the Workplace: Toward a General           Model. Human Resource Management Review, 11(3), pp.299-326.

Reggio, E. A. 2003. Introduction to Industrial/Organizational Psychology (4th Ed.). Prentice           Hall, New Jersey.

Staw, B. M., Bell, N. E., & Clausen, J. A. 1986. The Dispositional Approach to Job Attitudes: A         Lifetime Longitudinal Test. Administrative Science Quarterly, 31, pp.437–453.

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