microbiology

microbiology
Choose the best answer:
1. Endotoxins are most frequently associated with __________________

A. A streptococcal throat infection that leads to rheumatic fever
B. A streptococcal skin infection that leads to kidney damage
C. An E. Coli infection of the bladder and kidney that leads to organ damage
D. A Staphylococcal food poisoning infection
E. A severe case of viral gastroenteritis
F.
2. The spread of influenza, from someone coughing next to you in class, would be classified as ________________

A. direct, personal
B. direct, respiratory
C. indirect, personal
D. indirect respiratory

3. Hepatitis A, such as with the outbreak associated with Chi Chi’s locally, contaminated food, would be classified as ______________

A. Indirect, food or water supply
B. Indirect, fomites
C. Direct, food or water supply
D. Direct, fomites

4. A good definition of endemic would be ___________________

A. a disease that is consistently prevalent in a given geographic area
B. a disease that is under control in a given geographic area
C. a disease that is likely to reach epidemic proportions over time
D. a disease that occurs in a geographic area, but does not pose a health hazard

5. Viruses are classified by which of the following?

A. Their genetic makeup
B. Their shape or architecture
C. The presence or absence of an envelope
D. All of these are used for classification of viruses
6. Viruses are able to infect which domain(s)

A. Bacteria
B. Archaea
C. Eukarya
D. All of these may be infected by viruses

7. According to lecture, the largest of these viruses are the ___________viruses

A. Pox
B. Herpes
C. HIV
D. HPV

8. The protein enclosure of a virus is known as a __________

A. Envelope
B. Capsid
C. Capsule
D. Protein coat

9. . Viruses attach to target cells by way of ___________

A. Pili
B. Fimbria
C. Protein spikes
D. Lipid envelopes
E. flagella

10. As per lecture, what do certain DNA viruses do after initial infection in human cells?
A. Become latent or dormant for a period of time
B. Leave the host cell unchanged after the infection resolves
C. Both of these are possible
D. Neither are possible
11. The yellow fever virus is in which of the viral categories

A. Flavivirus
B. Rhinovirus
C. Retrovirus
D. Adenovirus
E. Filovirus

12. Immediately prior to penetration by a any animal virus, what process must occur?

A. maturation
B. adsorption or attachment
C. uncoating
D. assembly
E. membrane rupture

13. Viruses, as per lecture, are now thought to be related to ____________percentage of cancers in humans

A. less than 10
B. more than 50
C. between 30 and 50
D. between 15 and 30

14. Hepatitis C is known to be a _______________

A. Herpes virus
B. Corona virus
C. Flavi virus
D. Rhabdo virus
E. Papilloma virus

15. Human Papilloma Virus is known to be a ____________

A. Enveloped
B. DNA virus
C. Isometric
D. A, B and C
E. Only B and C

Match the name of the disease to the name or classification of the virus.

Answers may be used once twice or not at all

A. Rhinovirus
B. Herpes virus
C. Paramyxo virus
D. Orthomyxovirus
E. Togavirus

16. Common cold
17. Mononucleosis
18. Measles
19. Mumps
20. Chicken Pox

21. . An enveloped virus differs from a naked virus in that ___________

A. The viral genome contains RNA and not DNA
B. The protein coat is helical or spherical
C. There is a lipid membrane structure enclosing the nucleocapsid
D. There are protein spikes located on the external structure

22. Ebola is known to be a _________________ virus.

A. RNA, enveloped, filamentous
B, DNA, enveloped, filamentous
C. RNA, naked, isometric
D. DNA, naked, isometric
23. . Rotavirus (Infantile Diarrhea) is part of which classification?

A. Flavivirus
B. Corona virus
C. Herpes virus
D. Norovirus
E. Reovirus

24. . Picornaviruses lead to the following diseases except __________________

A. polio
B. hepatitis A
C. roseola
D.gastric enteritis
E. All of these are caused by this type of virus

25. Small pox virus and Herpes Simplex are both_______________

A. DNA viruses
B. RNA viruses
C. enveloped
D. A and C
E. B and C
Use the following table to answer the next group of questions regarding usual routes of transmission – answers can be used more than once or not at all. ( How these are typically spread)
A. enteric/fecal to oral route
B. Respiratory or Salivary route(inhaled particles)
C. Zoonotic – vector transmission
D. Sexually transmitted – Sustained contact with blood or body fluids

26. Hepatitis A is transmitted this way
27. Polio is transmitted this way
28. Measles is transmitted this way
29. Varicella/Zoster is transmitted this way
30. Yellow Fever is transmitted this way
31. Herpes Simplex Type 2 is transmitted this way

32. Viruses may induce tumors in certain animal cells by ____________

A. damaging cell membranes
B. by changing proto-oncogenes to oncogenes
C. by reacting with other viruses
D. activating genetic repair mechanisms E. all of these contribute

33. Examples of viruses associated with cancers in humans include all of the following except ___________

A. Hepatitis B
B. Hepatitis C
C. Epstein-Barr
D. Rubella
E. Human papilloma

34. An interesting tumor frequently seen in AIDS patients that is caused by a Herpes virus is known as _______________

A. Lawrence’s Hepatosarcoma
B. Burkitt’s Lymphoma
C. Kaposi’s Sarcoma
D. Mycoses Fungoides Lymphoma

35. Prions cause diseases that are classified as transmissible spongiform enecephalopathies, characteristics include _________________

A. Slow onset time
B. Inevitably fatal
C. Tumor inducing
D. A & B
E. A, B & C
36. According to the PowerPoint presentation, a pathogenic infection is classified as a _______________.

A. symbiosis
B. mutualism
C. parasitism
D. commensalism
E. Both B and C apply

37. . The barriers to infection include which one of the following:

A. physical
B. chemical
C. biological
D. Both A and B
E. A, B and C

38. Which one of these normal flora are unable to cause disease, if given the opportunity?

A. Staphylococcus epidermis
B. Enterococcus faecalis
C. Clostridium difficile
D. E. coli
E. All of these may cause disease

39. Which of these is a symptom, as per the powerpoint presentation?

A. fever
B. bleeding
C. rash
D. nausea
E. vomiting
40. Which of the following is an example of a secondary infection, as per the lecture?

A. food poisoning with E. coli
B. pneumonia in an immuno-suppressed HIV+ patient
C. Streptococcal throat infection with Rheumatic fever
D. Tetanus infection following trauma
E. These are all primary infections

41. An organism that is able to cause infection and damage rapidly with a small initial exposure would be classified as ______________.

A. pathogenic
B. opportunistic
C. virulent
D. labile
E. pandemic

42. A patient has a Herpes Simplex Type 2 infection. It occurs, then disappears and then reoccurs with visible lesions on the genitalia. This infection would be described as ________.

A. acute
B. latent
C. chronic
D. convalescent
E. transient

43. A patient suffering with evidence of widespread infection throughout the body which may include both effects from the organism and its products is frequently termed as a _______________.

A. septicemia
B. bacteremia
C. toxemia
D. disseminated infection
E. generalized infection

44. Which one of the following organisms, as noted in lecture, does not fulfill Koch’s postulates.

A. M. tuberculosis (TB)
B. T. pallidum (Syphillis)
C. B. anthracis (anthrax)
D. M. leprae (leprosy)
E. S. aureus (Staphylococcus)
45. During invasion what is the most powerful barrier to infection for most infectious diseases?

A. mucous membranes
B. skin
C. phagocytosis
D. T-cells
E. B-cells
46. An interesting aspect of infections is that the damage they do to particular systems, such as what occurs with influenza in the lungs or C. difficile in the GI tract, is that ____________.

A. The damage is usually fatal
B. The damage facilitates the spread of the disease
C. The damage is irreversible
D. The damage only occurs in some members of the population.

47. Both botulism and tetanus exotoxins are categorized as __________, related to what systems they attack.

A. neurotoxins
B. hemotoxins
C. enterotoxins
D. None of these is correct

48. A-B toxins are noteworthy. The A component is associated with ____________, and the B component with __________________.

A. toxicity, cellular destruction
B. toxicity, cellular attachment
C. cellular attachment, toxicity
D. cellular lysis, toxicity
E. both A and B function as a unit to produce toxicity and attachment

49. Superantigens specifically activate large numbers of ______________ cells that lead to their damaging effects.

A. Helper T cells
B. Killer T cells
C. Antibody producing plasma cells
D. B cells
E. Both B and T cells

50. Bacteria may cause damage both directly and indirectly due to all of the following except ______________.

A. Cell membrane lysis of healthy cells
B. Inducing antigen-antibody complexes to form
C. Leading to antibodies attacking healthy tissue
D. Leading to inflammatory cells damaging healthy tissue
E. All of these are ways that bacteria cause damage
51. When studying diseases morbidity and mortality studies, these refer to ____________ and ______________, respectively.

A. death, percentage diseased
B. percentage diseased, death
C. death, life-threatening complications
D. life-threatening complications, death due to the disease
E. none of these is correct
52. The pathogens that are most difficult to eliminate are usually found in ______________

A. human reservoirs
B. arthropod reservoirs
C. non-human animal reservoirs
D. soil and water

53. A blood or fluid splash from a patient you are treating that enters an open wound on your skin is classified as which of the following?

A. a direct contact exposure
B. an indirect contact exposure
C. a form of droplet transmission
D. as highly infectious
E. none of these are accurate

54. The most frequent location, statistically, for nosocomial infections is the _________.

A. respiratory tract
B. skin
C. GI tract
D. Urinary tract
E. Surgical wounds
Use the following key to answer the next set of questions, an answer may be used once, twice or not at all

A. Poxvirus
B. Filovirus
C. Coronavirus
D. Orthomyxovirus
E. Rhabdovirus

55. Rabies
56. Ebola
57. Influenza
58. SARS
59. Molluscum contagiosum

60. Answer either A(true) or B (false)
______________. Measles is a potentially deadly disease.

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