research Assignment- Toxicology

Order Description
For the research assignment you can choose topics. I would prefer if you could do Toxic effects of nutrients or medicinal herbs (If you would like to do another one because you think it would be better please let me know!) The PDF document states that it needs to be in an essay format and says what exactly you need to address throughout the essay.
I have access to the library electronic resources and we are expected to source at least one of the recommended texts or similar materials (texts tend to be tertiary sources), at least four (4) primary (journal) sources.
I would like 10-12 references but you can be flexible.
This research assignment only requires 1,500 words

Identify and analyse the principles underlying Toxicology (exposure, dose-response and other risk characterisation, risk management) and determine what constitutes a toxic agent.
? This assignment will expand on the students? knowledge of Toxicokinetics, Toxicodynamics, Human Biology, Chemistry and Biochemistry
? The research will concentrate on specific agent(s) that can be toxic in the environment around us; and the mechanisms that this / these toxin(s) use to cause harm to the body.
TASK: Choose ONE (1) topic only from:
? Toxic effects of pesticides
? Toxic effects of metals, solvents and vapours
? Toxic effects of nutrients or medicinal herbs
? Toxic effects of radiation and radioactive materials
? Toxic effects of toxin secreted by prokaryotes/eukaryotes (example Diphtheria toxin (DT) is an extracellular protein of Corynebacterium diphtheria )
? Air pollution – acid rain/particulate matter/CO2 greenhouse effect
? Ecotoxicity – coal seam gas/ algal blooms
Obtain clearance from your Online Academic/Lecturer first regarding the specific agent or agents relevant to that issue.
What you need to address in your essay
? Present your research in essay format with an Introduction, Body and Conclusion ? In the introduction clearly identify the toxic agent(s) which you have chosen ? Clearly outline and discuss the risk characterisation/management or ecology issues ? Discuss exposure principles ? Dose-response or margins of safety data (Use of margins of safety data, dose-response curves, antidotes or similar i.e. concepts from the BIOP211 Toxicology lecture/tutorial, contribute to the level of description and the integration of key concepts) ? Toxic mechanisms of relevant agents in which you need to cover the effects produced at the biochemical, cellular, tissue, organ, system or whole of body level or society (toxicodynamics, as appropriate to your topic) ? Show relevance use of evidence-related research and use of, tables, figures, diagrams or flow charts
SUBJECT: BIOP211 (Pharmacology) TYPE: Research Assignment- Toxicology DUE DATE: [Sunday 11:55 pm] Session 7 WORD LIMIT: 1400 words +/- 10% WEIGHT: 30% TOTAL MARKS: 40 marks

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? Conclusion highlight/summarize the key/critical findings of the selected topic along with your opinion on the relevance for the selected toxic agent. ? PLEASE USE THE MARKING RUBRICS (Page number 5-9) TO CRITIQUE AND EDIT YOUR OWN DRAFTS
Academic Writing
? Cover sheet is must (see further explanation below)
? Writing is expected to be of an academic standard (see further explanation below) and all non- original work must be properly referenced. Formal documents require third person grammar
? In-text References (Harvard System as per the Endeavour Referencing Guide). In-text citations are included in total word count.
? Reference list, as per the Endeavour Referencing Guide
? As you have access to library electronic resources the expectation is that you will source at least one of the recommended texts or similar materials (texts tend to be tertiary sources), at least four (4) primary (journal) sources ? Presentation (see further explanation below) ? Words in excess of 10% beyond the required word count will not be marked ? PLEASE USE THE MARKING RUBRICS TO CRITIQUE AND EDIT YOUR OWN DRAFTS
Recommended readings:
? Klaasen, CD 2013, Casarett & Doull?s Toxicology- the basic science of poisons 8th edn. McGraw Hill, NY.
? Klaasen, C.D. and Watkins, J.B.(III). 2015. Casarett and Doull?s Essentials of toxicology 3rd ed, McGraw Hill, NY. ? Your reading for risk management will depend on your agent/issue. As an example using chemicals: Safe Work Australia. 2012. Managing risks of hazardous chemicals in the workplace: Code of Practice July 2012. Viewed at http://www.safeworkaustralia.gov.au/sites/SWA/about/Publications/Documents/697/Managing%2 0Risks%20of%20Hazardous%20Chemicals.pdf
Instructions – BIOP211 Pharmacology Assignment
Student Integrity
? Note that all forms of plagiarism and cheating are taken very seriously at Endeavour. Please ensure that you are familiar with the Student Integrity Policy (http://www.endeavour.edu.au/docs/policies- and-handbooks/Student_Integrity_Policy.pdf) and that you are mindful of avoiding the use of any work that is not your own without proper attribution as well as never allowing your work to be used by another student.

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Presentation and Professional Writing
? A cover sheet is must with the following details ? Title of the essay ? Student name ? Student number ? Online cohort /Semester ? Name of the Online academic/Lecturer ? Total word count ? Your student name and number should be in the ?header? on every page ? The assessment should be completed in your own words with the information being clear, concise and easy to understand. The information should be presented in sentences and paragraphs, as appropriate. For assistance in ensuring this academic standard, please refer to the Communication Skills Handbook, 4th edn (2014) by Summers & Smith. Where there is a difference between the assistance in Summers and Smith (2014) and your organization?s guide, these authors state to always follow your organization?s guide first. ? Type your assignment in essay format as a Word document Arial at least [11] font, 1 ? line spaced. ? The essays format must have an introduction, a body and a conclusion. ? INTRODUCTION: introduce the selected topic to the reader and it should also cover issues you are going to discuss and order in which they will appear ? BODY: present your findings and address the questions raised in the marking rubrics ? CONCLUSION: you analyse critically means looking at your findings and asking yourself, ‘what do I think about this?’
? The presentation must be word-processed; pdf documents are not acceptable. ? As you have access to library electronic resources the expectation is that you will source at least one of the recommended texts or similar materials (texts tend to be tertiary sources) and at least four (4) primary sources (usually journal articles). Peer-reviewed sources or sources that also reference their data are preferred, but only one (1) non-peer reviewed sources such as a newspaper paper/online article can be used as references to illustrate impacts on society. As a guide to the reliability of web- based resources, extensions of .gov or .org or .edu are more reliable and tend to be based on peer- reviewed information. ? All information presented in the assignment must be correctly referenced following the Harvard style as directed by the College ? For assistance with proper referencing, Mendeley citation software, and plagiarism please refer to the Referencing page on the Endeavour Libguides:
http://endeavour.libguides.com
? A tutorial video on referencing is available here: http://media.endeavour.edu.au/endeavour/Library/Referencing%20tutorial%202/Referencing%20tuto rial%202.html Additional support can be found at the top of the LMS Main Page under the Academic Writing tab.

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? A direct quote should only be used to illustrate a point and not to explain a concept. ? Be aware that you are not awarded marks for giving a direct quote; you are only given marks for your ability to show the relevance of the quote to the concept that you are researching. Remember paraphrasing must be referenced appropriately within the text. See the marking rubric for penalties where paraphrasing has not been done appropriately. ? Use of flow charts, tables and other literary devices of own compilation only please do not COPY and PASTE from text books, research articles or websites, to illustrate the range of agents, mechanisms and toxic effects or exposure principles for living things and environmental issues (words in these types of diagrams do not count towards the word count but as a guide, tables, graphs or figures presented should not consist more than 30% of the total assignment word count); ? Tables, graphs and figures should enhance the synthesis or interpretation of the material in the text of the essay and should be referred to directly in the text of the essay by their Table number (heading) or Figure or Diagram number (caption). EXPLAIN THEIR RELEVANCE in the body of your essay, if you cannot explain/link the relevance, then omit that table/diagram as unnecessary. ? Diagrams are not compulsory; but if they are of your own compilation, higher marks can be obtained, as per the rubric ( please refer to page numbers 6-9). ? If you have questions about this, please consult with your online academic/lecturer before you complete and submit your assessment.
Word Count
? The word count must be clearly displayed on the title page. ? The required word count does not include text appearing in tables, graphs, figures, captions and the reference list. Tables, graphs, and figures can enhance assignment presentation if used to convey directly relevant information. While they are not in the required word count, as a guide, tables, graphs or figures presented should not consist more than 30% of the total assignment word count ? In-text citations are included in total word count.
Submission of the Paper
? The assignment is to be submitted electronically no later than Sunday 11:55 pm AEST Week 8. Your draft and final assignment will need to be submitted to Turnitin? (preferably 24 to 48 hours prior to the final date for upload, to allow you time to refine your paraphrasing). Your final draft which you upload must comply with anti-plagiarism clauses in the Assessment Policy (e.g. <25% similarity index, no inappropriate (non-peer reviewed) websites).
Late Submission
? Assessments must be handed in by the due date. Students submitting an assessment after the due date, and without an approved extension of time, will lose 10% of their mark on the assessment, per day it is late (as per the Assessment Policy).

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? So long as five days or less extension is all that is required, the Online Academic/lecturer will confirm the appropriateness of the third-party confirmation of the extenuating circumstances given in the application. Extensions must be written, i.e. submitting the required ?Application for Extension? form or email with a Statutory Declaration and relevant evidence attached. Ensure that you send a completed and witnessed statutory declaration, available on the web by searching under your state or country or available from Student Services at your nearest campus. If you require longer than five days, the application for extension will be dealt with according to the Assessment Policy (>5 days but less than two weeks) or Special Circumstances policy (> two weeks extension required) as appropriate.

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MARKING RUBRICS
Integrated level Comprehensive level Developed level Acquired level Under-developed level
Introduction of the issue and identification of the toxic agent(s) ______________________________ with introductory level of description 5 to 4 4 to 3 3 to 2 2 to 1 1 to 0
Introduction was impactful with clear identification of the agent(s)
Cover sheet included
Introduction showed good communication skills
– with identification of the agent
– and a clear description of the issue(s) in the introduction
Cover sheet included
An introduction was attempted
-with identification of the agent
-and some description in the introduction
Cover sheet included
– Minimal identification of the agent
– and omissions from the description of the issue or few paraphrasing skills shown
– but some introductory ideas were discussed
Cover sheet included
– Failure to recognise the importance of an introduction,
– serious omissions in the identification and description of the agent(s) and the issue
Cover sheet missing
Environmental impacts / Health impacts with other relevant risk characterisation/management concepts
5 to 4 4 to 3 3 to 2 2 to 1 1 to 0
Thorough discussion of risk characterisation/management
– showing deep understanding of the chosen toxicology issue and the relationship with exposure to toxic agent(s) for living things
– integration of concepts about environmental impacts of toxic agents involved or other relevant aspects of risk characterisation or management that is current and the context clearly given
Significant discussion of risk characterisation/management
– showing importance of the toxicology issue and some knowledge of exposure principles
– developing the ability to integrate information about environmental impacts or other relevant aspects of risk characterisation or management
Some discussion of the interrelationship between toxicology, exposure and environmental impacts or health impacts
– with at least one regulatory method given
– omissions in relevant areas or discussion was more descriptive than integrative
– omissions in discussion of other relevant risk characterisation methods
Minimal discussion of interrelationships
– descriptive rather than integrative approach to some of the relevant areas: toxicology issue, exposure, environmental impacts, health impacts risk characterisation/management
or little paraphrasing skills shown
No discussion of interrelationships or
– no integration of ideas
Serious omissions of concepts about exposure or environmental impacts or health impacts and or risk characterisation / management

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Illustration of exposure principles to example agent(s) with use of tables, figures, flow charts (referred to within body of essay)
5 to 4 4 to 3 3 to 2 2 to 1 1 to 0
Thorough discussion of exposure and clearly linked to mechanisms and toxic effects of any relevant agent(s)
– Full understanding shown of relevant theory with no omissions about timing of exposure
– With adherence to pharmacology-specific language ( accurate use of terminology and data such as but not limited to: LD50, TD50, margins of safety, NOAEL, LOAEL, maximum tolerable dose, Sieverts )
Significant discussion exposure and with more than one link to mechanisms of toxicity & toxic effects
– With few omissions of important concepts from the theory
– Some use of data relevant to the toxin
Some critical discussion of exposure and at least one link to a mechanism of toxicity & toxic effect
Minimal discussion of exposure
– about the toxic agent or the harm it causes or little use of evidence
No discussion of exposure
-toxic effects
– little understanding shown about the toxic agent and how it can cause harm to the body
Discussion of mechanism(s) and toxic effect(s), appropriate to the issue
10 to 8 8 to 6 6 to 4 4 to 2 2 to 0
Thorough discussion of several mechanisms (toxicodynamics)
including biochemical, biological mechanisms or sociological importance of the toxic agent
– Developed ability to integrate information from different areas of study relevant to the chosen topic and highlighted important data or level of detail
Significant discussion
– including biochemical, biological mechanisms or sociological importance of the toxic agent
– developing the ability to integrate information from different areas of study relevant to the student?s chosen topic but only a few mechanisms discussed or discussion omitted some important data or level of detail
Some discussion of the interrelationship between toxicology and other areas of human endeavour in either the body of the essay or the conclusion
– omissions in relevant biochemical or biological mechanisms appropriate to the agent chosen
– or approach only described the toxic effects rather than integrating biochemical or biological mechanisms
Minimal discussion of interrelationships
– descriptive rather than integrative approach to some of the relevant mechanisms of toxicity
or few paraphrasing skills shown-
No discussion of interrelationships or
– no integration of ideas
– or no mechanisms of toxicity given
Attempt was made to explain the mechanism of toxicity by listing only the sign ( max marks 1 ) and symtoms ( max marks 1) of the selected toxic agent.

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Depth of research and relevance, use of evidence-related research and use of, tables, figures, diagrams or flow charts (referred to within body of essay) to support in-depth description
5 to 4 4 to 3 3 to 2 2 to 1 1 to 0
Significant research that was relevant to mechanisms & toxic effects with application of margins of safety or dose estimates, dose-response curves, antidotes or other concepts from BIOP211 Toxicology Lecture Tables, figures, flow charts were of student creation and not CUT and PASTED from different sources and enhanced the flow and cohesion of the text Most of the information is well supported with multiple references
Significant research mostly relevant to – Mechanisms of toxicity & – toxic effects – With few omissions of important concepts from the theory and some use of data to explain key concepts Tables, figures, flow charts were of student creation and relevance was shown
Some critical research of -mechanisms of toxicity – toxic effects – Developing skills at use of evidence-related research Some ability to summarize information with optional use of tables, figures or flow charts and were of the student?s own compilation that were functional and not just merely decorative
Minimal research on – Mechanisms of toxicity – Toxic effects If diagrams were used, their use was only decorative (no reference to them in the body of the essay and no relevance shown)
No research of -mechanisms of toxicity -toxic effects If diagrams were used, their use was only decorative (no reference to them in the body of the essay and no relevance shown)
Conclusion
5 to 4
4 to 3 3 to 2 2 to 1 1 to 0
Summary skills that were demonstrated were of a thorough standard with integration of all toxicology concepts: exposure, dose, mechanism(s) of toxicity, health or environmental impacts, risk management within context or applications / future studies
Summary skills were demonstrated that mentioned research on toxicology concepts and gave context to risk characterisation and risk management for the agents or issue chosen
Some summarizing done of some toxicology concepts
Little summarizing done
No conclusion

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Professional Writing, a title, Use of Endeavour Harvard referencing system (in-text citations done and Reference List)
5 to 4 4 to 3 3 to 2 2 to 1 1 to 0
Excellent presentation and following of instructions
– well organised, links sections and paragraphs within the one topic
– shows extensive editing i.e. grammatically correct, spelling
– and meets the word count 1400 words ? 140 words
– in-text referencing (citations) with at least four (4) primary sources and source at least one of the recommended texts or similar materials
– and demonstrates a high level of Harvard referencing using the Endeavour Referencing Guide
Very good presentation that follows instructions and is
– organised, shows some cohesion between paragraphs within the one topic
– shows some editing i.e. mostly grammatically correct, spelling
– and meets the word count 1400 words ? 140 words
– Use of in-text referencing (citations) with at least four (4) primary sources and source at least one of the recommended texts or similar materials
– and demonstrates use of the Harvard referencing system using the Endeavour Referencing Guide
Good presentation, that follows instructions and
– uses paragraphs within the one topic that cover similar concepts
– shows editing i.e. some control of grammar and spelling
– and meets the word count. 1400 words ? 140 words
– Use of in-text referencing (citations) at least four (4) primary sources
– and demonstrates use of the Harvard referencing system using the Endeavour Referencing Guide
Presentation is adequate, showing some attempt at following instructions
– paragraphs
– editing of grammar and spelling
– and meets the word count. 1400 words ? 140 words
– Uses in-text referencing (citations)
– and an attempt at use of the Endeavour Referencing Guide for sources that included more than merely the set texts
Presentation is inadequate, showing little attempt at following instructions
– sentence and paragraph structure not used to effect
– grammar and spelling errors detracted from the readability of the essay
– word count must be met to receive highest grades within this level
– Used some system of acknowledging sources
– major errors in application of the Endeavour Referencing Guide
Or insufficient sources used

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